Romanised Saṃskṛta Sūtra Glossary


A lesser known facet of the Yoga Texts and Freenotes section of the Website is the Romanised Saṃskṛta Core Glossary and Cross Reference Guide. It started life as word by word linked index for the online Yoga Sūtra verses offering a meaning and a cross Sūtra reference resource when exploring related verses.

However as more Yoga Related Texts were added to the online Database it was obvious that the glossary needed to include related terms from other textual sources that matched or correlated with those in the Yoga Sūtra. So the glossary now adds terms from related sources such as the Sāṃkhya Kārikā, the Bhagavad Gītā, the Gītārtha Saṃgraha and Haṭha Yoga Texts, though inevitably these will expand even further over time.

The core word is shown in Romanised Saṃskṛta  and Devanāgarī script, along with a suggested translation or translations where it may have several meanings within different contexts. This is complemented by cross referencing Similar and Opposite Words, Related Concepts and Collected Commentaries, all drawn together as themes around the Core Word, from the many posts around these topics on the Yoga Journal section of the website. This will hopefully help the reader navigate and utilise the ever increasing number of resources.

abhāva - non-appearance, non-existence, absenceabhaya - unfearful; undauntedabhibhava - disappearanceabhighāta - infliction of injury, damageabhighātaka - counteracting, removingabhihāra - mingling togetherabhijātasya - preciousabhimāna - high opinion of one's self, self-conceit, pride, haughtinessabhimata - appropriate; longed for, wished, desiredabhiniveśa - tenacity; the will to stay alive, survival instinct, clinging to life, fear of death; desire for continuity; instinctive clinging to worldly life and bodily enjoyments and the fear that one might be cut off from all of them by deathabhivyakti - manifestation; distinctionābhyantara - internal, being inside, interior, innerabhyāsa - practice; the effort of the mind to remain in its unmodified condition of purity ; repeated or permanent exercise, discipline, use, habit, custom;ācārya - preceptor, spiritual teacheracetana - without consciousness, inanimate; unconscious, insensible, senselessādāna - taking, seizing;ādara - enthusiasm; to exert or interest one's self forādarśa - seeingādau - from the first or beginning, at firstaddhā - certainly, truly; in this wayadhama - lowestādhāra - support, prop; that which contains; the power of sustaining, or the support given; dike, damadharma - unrighteousness; injustice; irreligion; what is not right or natural; or not in accordance to śāstrasadhas - below, downadhigama - realised; attainedadhimātra - excessive; above measure; extremeadhirohiṇī - a ladder, flight of stepsadhiṣṭhāna - standing by, being at hand, approach; standing or resting upon; government, authority, poweradhiṣthātṛtva - omnipotenceadho mukha śvānāsana - downward facing dog poseadhvan - wayadhyāsā - overlappingadhyātma - inner essenceadhyātmika - concerning the essenceadhyavasāya - mental effort, apprehension; determination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruitadhyāya - a lesson; lecture; chapter; reading; proper time for reading or for a lessonadhyayanam - also going over, recitation, repetition; reading, studying, especially the vedasādi - in the beginning, at first; beginning, commencement; a firstling, first-fruits; beginning with, and so on; and the restadṛṣta - unseenadvaita - not two, non-dualismādya - first, being at the beginningāgama - testimony; anything handed down and fixed by traditionagastya - name of a sage; name of Śivaagni - fire, sacrificial fire; the god of fire; the fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric fluidagrya - pointedness; intent, closely attentiveaguṇa - destitute of qualities or attributesaham - I; I amahaṃkāra - individuation; conception of individuality; the making of selfāhāra - eating; taking foodāharaṇa - causing, inducingahiṃsā - non-harming; less harmingāhuḥ - it is said; is calledaiśvarya - the state of being a mighty lord, sovereignty, supremacy, power, sway; superhuman powerajānata - being ignorant; by a person without knowledge; not knowing; those who are unaware ofajapā - unpronounced; the Mantra or formula called Haṃsa (which consists only of a number of inhalations and exhalations).ājñā - commandajñāna - ignoranceajñāni - one who doesn't know; one who thinks they knowajñasya - insentient; inanimateajñāta - not knownakalpitā - non-imaginaryākāra - form / shapeakaraṇa - not making, effectingākarṇa - up to earakartṛ - not an agentākāśa - space; ether; subtle and ethereal fluid; sky, atmosphereākhyā - to tell, communicate, inform, declare, announce; appellation, name; to cause to tellākhyāta - said, told, declared, made knownakliṣṭa - not afflicted, tormented, distressed; untroubled, undisturbed, unweariedakrama - non-sequential; not happening successively, happening at onceakriyā - inactivity; without works; abstaining from religious rites; epithet of Godakṛṣṇa - not blackakṣara - imperishableākṣepīn - transcendsākuñcana - bending; contracting; drawing up, in; closing upakusīda - disinterested in gainingākūta - incitement to activity; intention, purpose, wishalabdha - non-attainment, unobtainedālambana - supporting, resting onālasya - laziness; idlealiṅga - unmanifestālocana - seeing, perceiving; considering, reflecting, reflection,āloka - light, lustre, splendour; sight, aspect, visionalpa - littleāma - uncookedamṛtam - nectaran - breatheanabhighāta - not troubledanāditva - beginninglessnessanāgata - not yet comeanāhata - unstuck, produced otherwise than by beatingānanda - happiness, joy, enjoyment, sensual pleasure; the thing wished forānandamaya - consisting of blissananta - endless, boundless, eternal, infinite; the first serpentānantarya - successionānantya - due to endlessnessanāśaya - without seeds, depositsanaṣṭa - not disappearedanāstika - heterodoxanātman - other than essenceanavacchedā - not separatedanavacchinnā - not boundanavadhāraṇa - not ascertainedanavasthita - losing stability, unsettled, unsteady,andha - blind; dark; turbid water, waterandhatāmisra - utter darkness; complete darkness of the soulaneka - other; not one, many, muchaṅga - a limb; the bodyaṇiman - minutenessaniṣṭa - unwanted, undesirable, unfavourableanitya - transitoryañjali - the open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed, reverence, salutation, benediction; a measure of corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side by sideañjanatā - assume the colour of an objectaṅkuśa - a hook, especially an elephant-driver's hook; to have control overannam - foodannamaya - consisting of foodanta - end (from ... to)antar - internalantar kumbhaka - internal retentionantara - other; different; anotherantarāya - intervention, obstacleantardhāna - disappearanceaṇu - minuteanu - follow, one after another, followinganubhāvana - following cultivationanubhūta - experience, experienced; perceived, understood, apprehended; resulted, followed as a consequenceanudātta - low pitch, grave accent; one of the three accents to be observed in reading the veda; not raised, not elevatedanugama - followsanuguṇa - similar qualitiesanukāra - imitatinganuloma - with the grainanuloma krama - with the grain sequenceanuloma ujjāyī - with the grain upwards victoryanumāna - inference; the act of inferring or drawing a conclusionanumodita - by approvalanupakārin - not assisting, disobliging, ungrateful, not making a return for benefits receivedanupalabdhi - non-recognition, non-perceptionanupaśya - apperceive; one who sees; perceiving; seeing; observesanupātin - following; corresponds to; following as a consequence or resultanuśayin - following upon, connected with as a consequenceanuṣṭhāna - doing; performance; practice; execution; to live with and put the teachings into practiceanuttama - unsurpassed, incomparably the best or chief, excellentanvaya - connectionanya - different from, other thananyatā - differenceanyathā - otherwise, in a different manneranyatva - anotheranyonya - one another, mutualāp - water elementapa - down; away, offāpad - to bring into trouble or misfortuneapāna - downward airapānāsana - downward air postureaparāmṛṣṭa - untouchedaparānta - ultimate end, deathaparigraha - non-grasping; less grasping; not grasping all around; non-possessiveness; non-covetousnessapariṇāmitvā - non-transformativeapārtha - without any object, useless, unprofitable, worthlessapārthaka - uselessāpastamba - a renowned sage and writer on ritual; especially the Dharmasūtraāpatti - assumesapavarga - completion, end; the emancipation of the soul from bodily existence, exemption from further transmigrationapekṣā - interest, anticipation, looking for, expectation, hope, need, requirementapeta - removed off; gone away, departed; disappeared; free fromapi - even, also, although; very; something more; moreoverapramāṇaka - not perceivableaprāpta - unobtained; unarrived; not accomplished; not yet full-grown; not resultingapratisaṃkrama - non-changing; having no intermixtureaprayojaka - not the initiatoraprīti - dislike, aversion, enmityāpta - a credible or authoritative personapuṇya - non-meritorious; wicked; unvirtuousāpūra - flow; filling, making full; flood, flooding, excess, abundanceārambha - undertaking, beginning; a thing begun; beginning, origin, commencementāraṇyaka - forest, wild, forest-born, produced in a forest; a class of religious and philosophical writings either composed in forests or studied thereardha - half; one part of twoardha matsyendrāsana - half lord of fish postureariṣṭa - portents, omenāroḍhum - to ascendaroga - free from disease, healthy, wellārogya - absence of illnessarogya - healthyartha - purpose, aim; sense, meaning, notion; thing, objectarthatā - objectsarthavattva - significance, importanceāryā - type of verse metreās - to sit, sit down; to be present; abide, remainas - to be, live, exist, be present; to take place, happen; to abide, dwell, stay; to belong toasakta - free from ties, independent; unattached or indifferent toaśakti - inability, incapabilityasāmānya - not common, specialasaṃkhyeya - innumerableasaṃkīrṇa - unblended; unmixedasaṃpramoṣa - retention; ‘the not allowing to be carried off’; not letting drop (as from memory)asaṃprayoga - disengagementasaṃsarga - non-associationāsana - particular posture; sitting, sitting down; seat, place, stool; abiding, dwellingasaṅga - non-association, non-attachment, non-inclination; having no attachment or inclination for or interest in; free from ties, independent; moving without obstacle;āsanna - nearaśāstra - not prescribed in the Śāstras, unscripturalasat - unreal; wrongāśaya - seed, deposit; resting placeāsevita - constant attending to, visiting, following, serving; practised assiduouslyasi - art; areasiddha - not existing or not having taken effect; imperfect, incomplete, unaccomplished, uneffectedasinā - swordāśis - will to live; desire for self-welfare; primordial desire; prayer, wish, asking for; blessing for, benedictionasmāt - from thisasmi - I amasmitā - egoity; the sense of 'I' am-nessāśrama - life stages; a hermitageāśraya - correspondence; that to which anything is annexed, or with which anything is closely connected, or on which anything depends or rests; substratumāśrayatva - correspondsāśrita - subject to, depending onaṣṭa - eightaṣṭādaśa - eighteenaṣṭāṅga - eight limbsaṣṭavidha - eight fold; of eight kindsaṣṭāviṁśati - twenty-eightasteya - not practicing stealing; non-stealing; less stealingasti - existsāstika - orthodoxastu - let it be, be it so; there must be or should beaśuci - impureaśuddhi - impurityaśukla - not whiteāsura - demonicāsurī - sage in sāṃkhya doctrineāsvāda - tasting; eating with a relish; flavour, tasteaśvinī - horseasya - hisataḥ - therefore, thus, consequently, henceatat - not thatatha - now, 'now' (begins); an auspicious and inceptive particle; A particle used at the beginning (of works) mostly as a sign of auspiciousnessati - passing, going, beyond; excessively, too, exceedingly, veryatidūra - a great distance, very distantatiprasaṅga - infinite coming togetheratīndriya - Beyond the cognizance (reach) of the sensesatiśaya - excess, excessive; eminence, superiorityatīta - pastatiyoga - excessive union, excessātmaka - taking the role of our essenceātman - essence; the highest personal principle of life; the individual soul, selfātmatā - nature; essenceatra - in this place, here at this time, there, thenatyanta - absolutely, completely, to the end; endless, unbroken, perpetual; permanencyautsukya - anxiety, desire, longing for, regretavagāhate - to be absorbed, absorbsāvaraṇa - covering, hiding, concealing; shutting, enclosing; an obstruction, interruptionavasthā - state; to abide in a state or condition; to be found, exist, be presentavasthāna - abiding, residing, dwelling; standing, taking up one's place; situation, conditionavatāra - descended from the heaven; appearance of any deity upon earth; any new and unexpected appearanceāveśa - enteringavibhāga - no separation, no distinction betweenavidyā - illusion; spiritual ignorance; connate misidentificationavighāta - no hindrance or obstacle; unimpededavikṛti - unchanged; being in its natural condition; not developedavinivṛtti - absence of destructionaviplava - unwavering; uninterrupted; uncorrupted, chasteavirati - over-indulgence, intemperance; incontinenceaviṣayī - not objectaviśeṣa - indistinct, without any difference, uniformaviśuddhi - Impurityaviveka - absence of judgement or discrimination; non-separation, non-distinctionavyakta - undeveloped, not manifest, unapparent, indistinct, invisible, imperceptibleavyapadeśya - undeterminedavyāpi - not pervading, not comprehensive, the thing which never remains everywhereāyāma - stretching, extending; restraining, restrainedayugapad - not at once, not simultaneously; not all together, graduallyāyurveda - sacred lore of longevityāyus - span of lifeback to topbaddha - bound, tied, fixed, fastened, chained, fetteredbaddha koṇāsana - bound angle posturebadh - to oppress; to harassbādhana - oppressedbadhnāti - it bindsbadhyate - boundbahis - externalbahumata - having many different opinions; much thought of, highly esteemed, valuedbahutva - muchness, abundance, multitude; plurality, majoritybāhya - externalbāhyā - being outside, situated without, outer, exterior; diverging from, conflicting with, opposed to, having nothing to do with; not belonging to the family or country, strange, foreign; excluded from caste or the community, an out-castebāhya kumbhaka - external retentionbaka - a kind of cranebakāsana - Crane Posebala - strength, might, force; force or power of articulationbandh - to bind, tie, fix, fasten, chain, fetterbandha - binding, tying, a bond, tie, chain, fetterbandhana - binding, tying, fetteringbasti - bladderbhadra - auspiciousbhagavadgītā - Kṛṣṇa's song a celebrated mystical poem containing a dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, in which the Pantheism of the Vedânta is combined with a tinge of the Sāṃkhya and the later principle of Bhakti or devotion to Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Beingbhagavat - divinebhāgya - fate, destiny, fortune, good fortune, luckbhakti - devotionbharā - carriesbhās - to shine, be bright; to appearbhāsa - luminosity, light, lustre, brightnessbhastrikā - bellows; a little bagbhāṣya - an explanatory work, exposition, explanation, commentarybhautika - anything elemental or material, formed of coarse elements; belonging to created or living beingsbhāva - becoming, being, existing, occurring, appearancebhava - re-emerge; coming into existence; birth; productionbhāvana - cultivation; imagining, fancying; forming in the mind; to occupy one's imagination with, conceptionbhāvanā - reflection, contemplation; direct one's thoughts to; feeling of devotion, faith inbhaya - fear, alarm, dread, apprehensionbheda - divide, piercebhedana - breaking, cleaving, splitting, rending, piercing, dividing, separating; causing to flow, giving free coursebheka - frogbhī - to fear, be afraidbhogā - worldly experience; enjoyment, eating, feeding onbhoktṛ - one who enjoys or eats, enjoyer, eater, experiencer, feeler, suffererbhrāmarī - relating to a bee; a type of kumbhakabhrānti - fallaciousbhrānta - perplexed, confused, being in doubt or errorbhū - to become, be, arise, come into beingbhuj - bend, curvebhujaṅga - a serpent, a snakebhujaṅgāsana - cobra posebhūmi - step, degree, stage; ground; floor of a house; foundation; a place, situationbhūmikatva - of a stagebhūta - element; living beingbhūtatvā - elementalism; being-nessbhuvana - worldbīja - seedbrahmā - name of one of the principal hindu deities; referred to as the creator within the triple deity of supreme divinitybrahmacarya - study of the Veda; the state of an unmarried religious student, a life stage; conservation; state of continence and chastitybrahman - that which expands; the absolute, the eternal; the class of men who are the repositories and communicators of sacred knowledge, the Brāhmanical caste as a bodybrāhmaṇa - Brahmanical explanation of rules or directions for ritesbrahmānanda - name of commentator on the haṭhapradīpikābrahmāsana - posture suited to religious meditation; the seat of the chief priestbṛṃhaṇa - building; a means for making strong or firm; making big or fat or strong, the act of making big; nourishingbubhukṣu - desirous of worldly enjoyment; wishing to eat, hungrybuddha - awakened, awake; a wise or learned man, sage; conscious, intelligent, clever, wise;buddhi - the intellectual faculty; comprehension; intelligence, discernment, judgementbudh - to wake, wake up, be awake; to know to be, recognize asback to topca - andcakra - wheelcakravākāsana - goose posecakṣus - sense of seeing; eyecala - agitation. disturbed, unsteadycalana - motion, action, function; moving on feet; shaking motion, shaking, tremblingcandra - mooncandra bhedana - moon piercingcāpalya - agitation, fickleness, unsteadinesscar - to move or travel through, pervade, go alongcarati - moves; to walk, to move aboutcarita - gone, gone to, attained; practised; acting, doing, practicecatur - fourcaturaṅga daṇḍasana - four limb staff posturecaturtha - fourthcatuṣṭaya - a set of 4, quaternioncet - if socetanā - consciousness, understanding, sense, intelligence; percipient, conscious, sentient, intelligentchāyā - shadowchidra - in the breaks / intervalscikitsā - therapeutics; medical treatmentcit - awareness, consciousness; to be aware of; to cause to comprehend, to observe; perceivecitra - speckledcitta - psyche (the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious); mind; heartback to topdaiva - divinedakṣiṇa - right, from or on the right side; southern as being on the right side of a person looking eastwarddāna - donation, gift; giving up; communicating, imparting, teachingdāna - the act of giving; to offer a giftdaṇḍa - stick, staff, rod, poledaṇḍāsana - staff posedantya - being on the teeth; suitable to the teethdarśana - view; seeingdarśayitvā - Having shown, having made manifestdarśin - one who has seen; seeing, looking at, observing, examining, finding; knowing, understandingdasa - tendaśadhā - tenfold, in ten partsdaśavidha - of ten kinds; tenfolddaurmanasya - negative thinking; dejectedness; melancholydvārāṇi - the doors of the bodydāyaka - giving, granting, bestowingdeha - the bodydeśa - place, point, region, spotdeva - heavenly, divine; a deity, goddevanāgarī - divine city scriptdevatā - image of a deity; idol; godhead, divinitydevavāṇī - a divine voice; language of the godsdevī - a female deity, goddessdhā - putting, placingdhana - wealth, riches, property, money, treasuredhanurāsana - bow posedhāraṇā - retaining, keeping back; collection or concentration of the mind; to exercise concentration; the act of holding, bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining;dharma - essential qualities, according to the nature of anything; highest duty; customary observance or prescribed conductdharmīn - substratumdhārya - to be kept (also in the memory), to be upheld or maintaineddhatte - offersdhātu - element of words (grammatical or verbal root or stem); primary element of the earth (metal, mineral); constituent part, ingredient; a constituent element or essential ingredient of the bodydhauti - the act of washingdhruva - pole stardhvānta - darkness, night; covered, veiled, darkdhyā - thinking, meditationdhyai - meditate; contemplate; think ofdhyāna - meditation; mental representation of the personal attributes of a deity; profound and abstract religious meditationdhyāta - that which meditatesdhyāya - meditating ondhyeya - to be meditated ondīpti - illuminates; brightness, light, splendour, beautydīrgha - length, long, for a long time; a long voweldivya - divinedoṣa - affection, defect, fault, biological humoursdrā - to sleepdraṣṭṛ - seer; one who sees, one who sees welldravya - a substance, thing, object; the ingredients or materials of anything; medicinal substance or drugdṛḍha - firm; soliddṛś - to see, behold, look at, regard, considerdṛśi - seeing; the power of seeingdṛṣṭa - seen, looked at, beheld, perceived, viewed, observed, noticed; visible, apparent, observable; considered, regarded; treated of; appearing, manifested; occurring, found; experienced, suffered, endured; seen in the mind, devised, imagined, learned,dṛṣṭi - seeing, viewing; seeing with the mental eye; knowing; sight, the faculty of seeing; the eye, look, the sight of the eye, the pupildṛśya - the seendṛśyatva - due to the quality of the seenduḥkha - suffering, pain, sorrowfuldurgā - invincible, impassable, unassailable; fortress, citadel stronghold; a difficult or narrow passage, a place difficult of access; the inaccessible or terrific goddessdus - a prefix to nouns; implying evil, bad, difficult, hard; badly, hardly; slight, inferiorduṣkṛta - badly arranged or organized or applieddvadasa - twelvedvaita - duality, dualismdvaṃdva - pair of oppositesdvārin - doorkeeperdveṣa - aversion; hatred; animosity; dislike; repugnancedvi - twodvi pāda pīṭham - two foot supportdvidha - twofold, divided in 2, split asunder, forkedback to topejayatva - unsteadinesseka - oneekādaśa - consisting of eleven; the eleventhekāgra - one-pointed; having one point; fixing one's attention upon one point or objectekāgratā - intentness in the pursuit of one object; close and undisturbed attentionekānta - solely, only, exclusively; absoluteness, certaintyekatānatā - continuityekatra - in the same placeekatvā - uniquenessekavidha - of one kindeṣām - of these; of themeṣa - whichetad - this, this here, here; sometimes used to give emphasis to the personal pronouns; it refers also to that which followsetayā - by thisete - these; theyetena - by thiseva - indeed, truly, really; thus; so, just so, exactly soback to topgamana - travelgaṇa - a number; a flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, classgaṇapati - the leader of a class or troop or assemblagegaṇḍa - the cheek, side of the facegandha - odour; smellgaṇeśa - the god of wisdom and of obstacles; though Gaṇeśa causes obstacles he also removes them; hence he is invoked at the commencement of all undertakings and at the opening of all compositionsgarbha - wombgati - going, moving, gait, deportment, motion in generalgāyatrī - chant metre; a hymn composed in the gāyatrī metre; an ancient metre of twenty-four syllables;ghana - method of reciting the text of the vedaghāta - injuring, hurtinggheraṇḍa - name of a teachergheraṇḍasaṃhitā - collection or proceeding from a teacher named gheraṇḍaghorā - unsteady, displeasing; frightful, terrible, violent, vehementghrāṇa - sense of smelling; noseghṛta - ghee; clarified buttergītā - songgodha - iguana; lizardgraha - graspgrahaṇa - the process of graspinggṛhastha - standing in the home; living or staying in any one's house; householder; a life stagegrahītṛ - that which is graspinggrāhya - that which is graspedgranthi - knotgrata - pointednessguṇa - an ingredient or constituent or attribute of nature; a property or characteristic of all created things; qualities; a quality, peculiarity, attribute or property; the peculiar properties of the lettersguṇavat - endowed with the qualities or attributesguru - teacherguhya - mysteryback to tophalāsana - plough posturehaṃsa - a kind of mantra; a goose, gander, swan, flamingo; the 'vehicle' of the goddess Sarasvatīhāna - the act of abandoning, relinquishing, giving up, escaping, getting rid of; gone or departed; cessationhārya - to be borne or carriedhasta - handhasti - elephanthaṭha - force, forceful; by force, forciblyhaṭhapradīpikā - special light or lamp on hatha yogahetu - cause, cause of; motive; reason forhetumat - having a reason or cause, proceeding from a causehetutvā - causality; causation; existence of cause or motiveheya - overcome; to be left or quitted or abandoned; rejected or avoided; to be left or quitted or abandonedhi - indeed, truly; becausehiṃsā - harm (to life or property), injury, hurt; wrong (said to be of three kinds, 1. mental, as "bearing malice"; 2. verbal, as "abusive language"; 3. personal, as "acts of violence")hīna - deficiency, want, absence; defective, faulty, insufficient, short, incomplete, poor, little, low, vile, bad, base, mean; bereft or deprived of, free from, devoid or destitute of, without;hita - beneficial, advantageous, salutary, wholesome, suitable, agreeing withhitopadeśa - a popular collection of fables intermixed with didactic sentences and moral precepts; it is chiefly founded on the Pañcatantrahlāda - delight; gladness, joyhṛdaya - heart or region of the heart as the seat of feelings and sensations; mind as the seat of mental operations; the heart or centre or core or essence or best or dearest or most secret part of anythingback to topicchā - will, desire, inclination, wishicchoḥ - for that person who wishesiḍā - comfort, libationindriya - faculty of sense; sense; organ of sense; organs of motor action and sensory perceptioniṣ - seek, desireiṣṭa - wished, desired; liked, beloved; chosenīśvara - the lord; god; the supreme being; the supreme soul; personal god; special self; master, lord, prince, king, mistress, queen; ruler of choicesīśvara kṛṣṇa - name of the author of Sāṅkhya Kārikāiṣyate - is said to be; known thus; is accepted as; is considered to beitara - othersitaratra - at other times, on the other handitaretara - one with the otheriti - thus; in this manner; something that has been said or thought; having so said; (it is used like a quotation mark)iva - as it were, as ifback to topja - born or descended from; produced or caused by; arises out ofjagat - the world, esp. this world, earth; moving, movable, locomotive, livingjala - waterjālaṃdhara - web or net holding; a kind of mudrājālandhara bandha - web or net holding; binding; throat lockjan - to generate, beget, produce, create, causejanana - generating, begetting, producing, causingjanman - birth, production; re-birthjānu - kneejanu śīrṣāsana - knee head posturejapa - repetitionjarā - becoming old; the act of becoming old, old age; the act of wearing out, wastingjaṭā - arrangement of the Vedic text (still more artificial than the krama , each pair of words being repeated thrice and one repetition being in inverted order)jaṭhara - the stomach, belly, abdomen, bowels, wombjaṭhara parivṛtti - rotated abdomenjāti - the form of existence, existence; birth, production; re-birth; position assigned by birth, rank, caste, family, race, lineage; genusjavitva - fleetnessjaya - mastery; conquest, victory, triumph, winningjāyante - are bornjihvā bandha - tongue bindingjijñāsā - desire of knowing; investigation; examinationjīva - living, existing, alive; causing to live, vivifyingjīvana - vivifying, giving life, enlivening; a living being; lifejīvātman - the individual soul enshrined in the human body; that spiritual essence which renders bodies susceptible of motion or sensationjivhā - the tonguejña - knowingjñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledgejñāni - one who knowsjñāta - knownjñātṛtva - knowingnessjñeya - to be knownjugupsā - disdainjvalana - glowjyotiśmant - luminescencejyotis - lightjyotsnā - light, splendour; title of commentary on haṭha pradīpikāback to topkaivalya - independence, freedom, emancipation, solitude, isolation, aloneness, separateness, abstraction, not connected with anything else; uncompounded, unmingledkala - to count; beats; partskāla - time, a period of time; season, the proper time or season forkalala - the embryo a short time after conceptionkali - strife, discord, quarrel, contention; last of the cycle of four ageskalpa - practicable, feasible, possible; proper, fit, able, competent, equal to; a sacred precept, law, rule, ordinance; having the manner or form of anything, similar to, resemblingkam - to love, to long forkāma - desire, longingkanda - bulbkaṇṭaka - thornskaṇṭha - throatkaṇṭhya - a guttural sound or letter; being at or in the throat; belonging to the throat, pronounced from the throat, gutturalkapālabhāti - skull shiningkapha - phlegm principlekapila - name/s of ancient sage/skapota - dove, pigeonkāra - making, doing, working, a maker, doerkaraṇa - making, effectingkāraṇa - reasons, causekaraṇī - form, aspect; doing, making; a particular position of the fingerskārikā - concise statement of doctrines in versekārita - brought aboutkāritva - quality of activitykarman - act, action, performance; work, labour, activity; any religious act or rite; organ of sensekarṇa - the earkarta - separation, distinctionkartṛtva - Being agent; the state of being the performer or author of anything;karuṇā - compassion, pitykārya - to be made or done or practised or performed, practicable, feasiblekaścit - anyone; somebody, someonekathaṃtā - whereforekauśala - skilfulness, cleverness, experiencekāya - the bodykenacit - whatsoever; with anyone; with. anythingkevala - alone, only, mere, sole, one, excluding otherskevala - alone, only, merely, solely, excluding otherskhyāti - recognition; perception, knowledgekiṃ - howkiñcit - something; somewhat; very little; anythingkleśa - afflictions; distress; anguishkliś - to be afflicted; to torment; to distresskliṣṭa - afflicted, tormented, distressed; connected with pain or sufferingkoṇa - corner; anglekṛ - to do, to makekram - to stride; to walk; to step; to go, to cross; to leap; to ascendkrama - sequence; order; series; regular arrangement; succession; progressing step by step; in regular course; gradually, by degreeskriyā - doing, performing, performance, occupation with, business, act, action, undertaking, activity, work, labour; bodily action, exercise of the limbs; medical treatment or practice, applying a remedy; a religious rite or ceremony, sacrificial actkrodha - angerkṛpākara - ‘a mine of compassion’, extremely compassionatekṛta - done; made; accomplished; performedkṛti - to do, to makekṛtsna - all, whole, entirekrudh - to be angrykṣam - endure; to be patient or composedkṣamā - forgivenesskṣaṇa - moment, any instantaneous point of time, instant, twinkling of an eye; a moment regarded as a measure of timekṣaya - diminish, wasting or wearing awaykṣema - to bear patiently, endure, put up with; giving rest or ease or securitykśetra - the fieldkṣetrika - like a farmerkṣīṇa - reducedkṣipta - distracted; unsteady; unable to concentratekṣīrasya - to long for milk or for the breastkṣīyate - dissolveskṣudh - hungerkukkuṭa - a wild cockkumbhaka - retentionkuṇḍalinī - annulate; circular; coiled onekūpa - wellkūrma - tortoisekurvanti - they do; they perform; they makeback to toplābha - attainedlāghava - lightness (also of heart), ease, relief;laghu - lightness; light in the stomach, easily digested; well, in good health; light, easy, not heavy or difficultlakṣaṇa - characteristic, attribute; a symptom or indication of diseaselaṅghana - lightening; to dry, dry up; fasting, hunger, starving system; rising to or towards, ascendinglāvaṇya - gracelaya - absorbedliṅga - manifest; sign; genderliṅgasya - of the subtle bodylobha - greedloka - the wide space or world; the earth or world of human beingsback to top - to measure; to weigh; to compare in sizemada - pride, arrogance, presumption, conceit of or aboutmadhura - sweet, pleasant, charming, delightfulmadhya - moderateness; middle, central, being in the middle or centre; Intervening, intermediate; standing between two, impartial, neutralmadhyamā - middling, intermediatemahā - greatmahābhāṣya - great commentary; particularly the commentary of Patañjali on Pāṇini Sūtramahāmudrā - great sealmahānārāyaṇa - great supreme beingmaharṣi - great seer, sagemahat - great principle; intellectual principlemahattva - greatestmahāvākya - a principal sentence; great propositionmaitrī - friendliness, good willmakaranda - nectarmālā - a string of beadsmala - dust; dirtmama - my; minemamakāra - interesting one's self about anything; self-interest; mineness; mine-making; the mistaken conception of mine or possessionman - to think, to supposemanana - thoughtfulmanas - mind; that which objects of sense affectmaṇḍala - circle, orbmāṇḍūkya - name of upaniṣat; frogmaṅgala - anything auspicious e.g. a good omen, a prayer, benediction, auspicious ornament or amulet; a festival or any solemn ceremony on important occasionsmaṇi - a jewel, gem, pearl, any ornament or amulet, globule, crystalmaṇipūra - jewel citymanomaya - consisting of mindmantra - a sacred formula addressed to any individual deity; instrument of thought; sacrificial formula; mystical verse or magical formula; incantation, charm, spellmanu - legendary author of an important law code; man; first manmānuṣaka - human, mortal; of humansmaraṇa - the act of dying, deathmaraṇa - the act of dying, deathmārga - seeking, search; way to or through; road, path; the track of a wild animalmarman - vulnerable pointmerudaṇḍa - the spinemātā - mothermata - a thought, idea, opinion, view, sentimentmātra - measure, quantity, sum, size, duration, measure of any kind; possessing as much as or no more than; amounting to; being nothing but, simply or merelymātrā - being nothing but, simply or merely; only; measure, quantity, sum, size, durationmatsara - selfishness; envy, jealousy; hostilitymātsarya - envy, jealousymatsya - fishmatsyendra - lord of the fish; a teacher of Yogamāyā - illusionmaya - consisting of; aspectmayūra - a peacock; a kind of flower; a kind of instrument for measuring timemayūrāsana - a hand-balancing āsaname - mymegha - cloud pouringmīmāṃsā - investigation of the proper interpretation of the Vedic textsmita - measured, moderate, scanty, frugal, little, short, briefmitāhāra - moderate food, scanty dietmithuna - paired, forming a pairmithyā - falsely, deceitfully, untruly; incorrectly, wrongly, improperlymitra - friend, companion, associatemoha - delusion; error; darkness or delusion of mind; to say anything that leads to error, to fall into errormokṣa - liberation, release from worldly existence or transmigration, transcendence, final or eternal emancipationmṛdu - mildnessmṛgi - deermṛtyu - death, dyingmucyate - be set free: releasedmūḍha - stupefied; bewildered; perplexed;muditā - gladness; rejoicing in, delighted; joyfulmudrā - sealmukha - head: face; mouthmukti - setting or becoming free, release, liberation, deliverance from; final liberation or emancipation, final beatitudemūla - rootmūla bandha - root binding; lower abdominal lockmūlādhāra - root supportmumukṣu - desirous of freeing, wishing to deliver from; eager to be free (from mundane existence), striving after emancipation; wishing to let go or give up; a sage who strives after emancipationmuni - a saint, sage, seer, ascetic, monk, devotee, hermitmūrcchā - fainting, swooning, loss of consciousness or sensemūrdha - the head; crown of the headmūrdhanya - ‘cerebrals’ or ‘linguals’, being on or in the head, belonging to the head; formed on the roof or top of the palate;mūrti - any solid body or material form; embodiment, manifestation, incarnation, personification; an image, idol, statueback to topna - no; not; nor, neithernabha - the skynābhi - navelnabho - the skynādānusandhāna - Following the inner soundnāḍī - channelnāḍī śodhana - channel cleansingnahuṣa - name of an ancient king, he took possession of Indra's throne but was afterwards deposed and changed into a serpent; name of son of Manu;naimittika - occasional, special, accidental; produced by any or by a particular cause; an effectnairantarya - without interruption, uninterruptedly, continuallynāma - namenamas - bow, obeisance, reverential salutationNamaskāra - the exclamation "namas" as in bow, obeisance, adoration, homage; respectful greetingsnānā - manifold, various, sundry, different, diverse; differently, variously, distinctly, separatelynānātva - difference, variety, manifoldnessnānāvidha - of various sorts, multiform, manifoldnandi - an attendant of Śiva; joy, happiness, welfarenārāyaṇa - supreme being in the qualified non-dualism conventionnartakī - causing to dancenaṣṭa - disappearednaṭavat - acting as a; pretender; like an actornātha - a protector, patron, possessor, owner, lordnāthamuni - The first ācārya of the South Indian Śrī Vaiṣṇava tradition and so, nominally, the first Viśiṣṭādvaita teachernaulī - to churnnava - ninenāva - boat, shipnetī - the drawing of a thread through the nose and mouthnibandhanīn - bindingnididhyāsana - profound and repeated contemplation (rational and cognitive process on the mahāvākya)nidrā - deep sleep; slumber; sleepiness; slothnimitta - instrumental cause; a cause that concurs in, or is elevated to, the production of something more noble than itselfnimna - inclined towardsnirālamba - self-supported; independentnirāśraya - supportless, having or offering no prop or stay, destitute, aloneniratiśaya - not surpassed; not rivallednirbhāsa - shining forth; appearancenirbīja - without seednirdiṣṭa - pointed out, shown, indicated, declared, announced, foretold, enjoined; ordered, meant or determined for, appointed tonirgrāhya - permanently graspednirguṇa - without attributes, qualities; without formnirmāṇa - created, constructed, forming, making, building, composition,nirodha - to contain, enclose; cover; confine, restrain; quell, surpress; quiescenirupa - non-formingnirvicārā - refined subtle reflectionnirvitarka - refined gross deliberationniṣṭhā - firmness, steadiness, skill in, familiarity with, certain knowledge ofnitya - eternal; constantly dwelling or engaged innityatvā - eternalitynivartaṇte - are perishable; finitenivartate - ceasesnivṛtti - cessation; non-movementniyama - observances; restraint of the mind; a rule or precept; obligation; restraining, checking, holding backniyata - Fixed, permanent, constant, steady; always, constantly, decidedly, inevitably, surelynṛtya - dancing, acting, gesticulation, pantomimenyāsa - placingnyāya - syllogistic argumentback to topojas - vital essence; bodily vitality; vigour;om - mystical symbol, sacred exclamationoṣadhi - blessed herbs, medicinal herbsoṣṭhya - a labial sound; produced by the lips, labial; being at the lips, belonging to the lips;back to toppa - guarding, protecting; rulingpac - cook, boil, bake; digest; ripen, maturepada - a word or an inflected word or the stem of a noun; a portion of a verse, quarter or line of a stanzapāda - the chapter of a book; section; a quarter, a fourth part; foot, leg; on foot; the act of locomotionpādāñguṣṭha - big toepādāsana - a footstoolpadma - lotuspadmāsana - a seat; lotus posture; posture in religious meditation; a kind of coituspadya - a way, path, roadpañca - fivepañcadhā - in 5 ways or parts, fivefoldpañcaka - consisting of 5, relating to 5, made of 5pañcaśikhā - a sage of ancient timespañcatantra - collection of moral stories and fables in 5 books from which the Hitopadeśa is partly takenpañcataya - fivefold; having five parts or limbspaṅgu - of those elements of the body which are themselves without motion; lame, halt, crippled in the legspāṇi - holding in the hand; the act of graspingpaṅka - mudpanthān - pathpāpa - what brings one down; downfall; inauspicious; misfortune, ill-luck, trouble, mischief, harmpāpaka - bad, evilpara - higher, otherparama - highest, mostparamparā - from “one to another”; an uninterrupted row or series, order, succession, continuationparārthe - dependent on something else; for another or for others or for something elseparaspara - like one anotherparatantra - dependent on or subject to another, obedientpari - round, around, about, round about; fully, abundantly, richly; fully, abundantly, richly; beyond, more thanparidṛṣṭa - seen to be, seen, beheld, perceived, learntparigraha - grasping all around; amassing; possessiveness; covetousnessparikrama - roaming about, circumambulating, walking through, pervading; following the course of a river down from its source to its mouthparīkṣā - inspection, investigation, examinationpariṇāma - transformation into; change, alteration, development, evolutionpariṇāmavāda - the ‘doctrine of evolution’, the Sāṃkhya doctrine;paripāka - digestion; completely cooked; cooked on all sidespariśuddhi - thoroughly purify, complete purification or justification, acquittalparitāpa - distress, pain, agony, grief, sorrow; glow, scorching, heatparivṛtti - turning, rolling, revolutionparivṛtti trikoṇāsana - rotated triangle posturepārśva - side, flankparśva trikoṇāsana - side triangle postureparśva uttānāsana - intense flank stretch forward bend postureparvan - phaseparyanta - to the end of, as far as; from one end to the other;paryavasāna - ultimate limit; terminus; conclusionpaścimatāna - west or back stretchpaścimatānāsana - west or back-stretch posturepata - flying; fallingpatañjali - celebrated as a compiler of the yoga sūtra or as a grammarianpāṭha - methods of reciting the text of the veda (of which there are 5 primary variants)pavamāna - being purified or strained; flowing clearpavitra - purifying, averting evil, pure, holy, sacred, sinless, beneficentpāyu - act of excretion; anusphala - fruit; consequence, effect; result; retribution (good or bad), gain or loss, reward or punishment, advantage or disadvantagepiñcha - a peacock featherpiṅgalā - tawny-red colourpipāsā - thirstpīṭham - a support as in a stool, seat, chair, bench; a particular posture in sitting; the seat of a deity; an altarpitṛ - father; the fathers; ancestorspitta - bile principleplāvinī - that which makes one float and flow; a type of kumbhakaprabhu - master, mighty, powerfulprabhūta - come forth, risen, appearedpracāra - manifestation, appearance, coming forth, spreadingpracchardana - lengthening the exhaleprada - giving, yielding, offering, granting, bestowing, causing, effecting, uttering, speakingpradhāna - the principal or first, chief, head of, prime, major; the most important or essential part; unevolved or root of matter, original source; the creative principle of naturepradhānasya - of nature, of the primary or unevolved matterpradīpa - a light, lamp, lanternpradīpavat - like a lamppradīpikā - special light or lampprādurbhāva - appearanceprāgbhāra - propensityprajñā - special knowing; insight; wisdom, intelligence, knowledge, discrimination, judgementprajñāta - known, understood, found out, discerned, known asprakaraṇa - treatment; discussion; explanation; subject, topic, matterprakāśa - clearness, brightness, splendour, lustre, light; visible, shining, brightprakopa - effervescence, excitement, raging (of diseases, war &c); provocation, aggravationprakṛti - the original producer of the material world; nature or process of matter; nature, character, constitution, temper, dispositionpramāda - carelessness, negligence; intoxicationpramāṇa - right perception, a correct notion; a means of acquiring; measure, scale, standardprameya - to be ascertained or proved; to be measured; the thing to be proved or the topic to be discussedprāṇa - vital force; the breath of life; breath; inward airpraṇam - to bend or bow down before; make obeisance toprāṇamaya - consisting of vital forcepraṇava - sacred syllable; the syllable that gives life; the mystical name of the deity; the mystical or sacred syllable om; name of the trinityprāṇāyāma - extending the breathpraṇidhāna - dedication; respectful conduct; attention; to place down; in front ofprānta - finalprāpnoti - to obtain, getprāpte - when arrived; having attainedprāpti - reaching, arrival at; attaining to, obtaining, meeting with, finding, acquisition, gain; the power of obtaining everythingprārthanā - prayer, to request, to petitionprasāda - serenity; a propitiatory offering, the food presented to an idolprasādana - calming, soothing, cheering, gratifying; propitiatingprasaṃkhyāna - omniscience, knowing; discriminative meditation, abstract contemplation; counting, enumerationprasaṅga - towards associationprasanna - placid, tranquilpraśānta - sereneprasārita - held forth, stretched out, expanded, spreadprasārita pāda uttānāsana - extended or spread leg intense stretch forward bend posturepraśvāsā - exhalationprasṛta - held or stretched out; extending over or toprasupta - latent, quiet, inactive; fallen into sleep, fast asleep, sleeping, slumberingprathamā - earliest, primary, original, prior, former; foremost, first, preceding, initial; chief, principal, most excellentprati - with regard to; towards, in the direction of; back, in return, again; in opposition to, against, countepratibandhī - opposeprātibhā - intuitive, divinatory; intuitive knowledge, intuition, divination; presence of mindpratikriyā - opposite activity, counteraction, compensationpratikriyāsana - opposite action posture; counterposepratiloma - opposite grainpratiloma krama - opposite grain sequencepratiloma ujjāyī - opposite grain upwards victorypratiniyama - A separate allotmen; A general rule; a strict rule as to applying an example to particular persons or things onlypratipakṣa - opposite sidepratipatti - ascertainmentpratiprasava - going back to their originpratiṣedha - counteractingpratiṣṭha - established; standing firmly, steadfast; point of support, centre or base of anythingpratīti - conviction, settled beliefpratiyogīn - correspondingpratyāhāra - withdrawal from the sensespratyak - turning inwardspratyakṣa - through the sensespratyaya - psychic activity; cause; conception, assumption, notion, idea; ground, basis, motive or cause of anythingprauḍha - strong; bold, proud, audacious; proficientpravarta - engaging in, undertakingpravibhāga - separationpravṛt - to come forth, issue, originate, arise, be produced, result, occur, happen, take placepravṛtti - finer cognition; special cognitionprayacchanti - they offer, present, bestow, deliverprayatna - continued effortprayoga - connectionprayojaka - initiating, occasioning, causing, effecting, leading to, inciting, stimulating, deputingprīti - any pleasurable sensation, pleasure, joy, gladness, satisfactionpronnata - raised up, elevated, lofty, high; superiorpṛthvī - earth elementpūjā - honour, worship, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to superiors or adoration of the godspumān - spirit; person; manpuṃs - the soul, spirit, spirit of manpunar - againpuṇya - propitious; virtuous; meritoriouspūraka - inhalepūrṇa - filled, full, filled with, full of; fulfilled, finished, accomplished, ended, past; complete, all, entirepūrṇimā - the night or day of full moonpurohita - front placedpuruṣa - animating principle, self, consciousness, spirit; a person, man, a human being; peoplepuruṣottama - supreme spiritpūrva - eastward, to the east of; in front, before; former, prior, preceding, previous to, earlier thanpūrvāṅga - a constituent part of the precedingpūrvatāna - east facing front stretchback to toprāga - colour; attraction; passion, delight in; vehement desire of; attachment; a musical note, harmony, melodyrahasya - secretrāja - a king, sovereign, chief or best of its kindrajas - excitingrakṣaṇa - the act of guarding, watching, protecting, preservationrakta - blood; coloured; redraṅga - a place for public amusement or for dramatic exhibition, theatre, play-house, stage, arena, any place of assemblyrasa - disposition; the prevailing sentiment in human character; flavour; any object of taste; a tasterasana - sense of tasting; the tongue as organ of taste; phlegm or saliva; tasting, taste, flavour, savour; croaking (of frogs)ratna - jewelsrātri - night; the darkness or stillness of nightrecaka - exhaleroga - disease, infirmity, sicknessrogya - related to or connected with disease, producing sickness, unwholesomeṛṣi - one who is intent on spiritual practiceṛṣiṇā - by the sageṛta - true; truly, sincerely; truth in general, righteousness; right, duly, properly; fit, aptṛta - truth; principle of natural order, cosmic order; divine law, faith, divine truthrūḍha - springing up; grown, produced fromrūpa - any outward appearance or phenomenon or colour; form, shape, figure; aggregate; ‘formed or composed of’, ‘consisting of’rūpatvā - characterrūta - cry ofback to topsa - this; with, together or along withśabdādi - the objects of the senses beginning with soundśabdānuśāsana - word-instruction or explanation; science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentencesabīja - with seedsadā - alwayssādhaka - efficient, someone who follows a particular sādhanasādhana - means to accomplish; leading straight to a goal; guiding well; furtheringsādhāraṇatvā - commonsādharmya - community or equality of duty or office or properties, sameness or identity of nature, likeness or homogeneousness withsādhayat - perfecting, accomplishingsaguṇa - with attributes, qualities; with formsaha - accompanysahabhuva - accompanyingsahakāra - assistance; acting withsahasrāra - thousand-spoked; a kind of cavity said to be found in the top of the head and to resemble a lotus reversedsahavāsa - dwelling togethersakriya - having action, active, mutable, movable, migratorysākṣāt - directly seeingsākṣitva - the office of any legal witness, evidence, testimony, attestationśakta - able, competent for, equal to, capable ofśakya - able, possible, practicable, capable of being,śāla - being in a house; an enclosure, court, fence, rampart, wallśalabhāsana - locust posesālamba - having anything as a support; with supportsālambana - supporting; belonging to or connected withsalilavat - like watersamā - equal, constant; fair, impartial towards; like to or identical with; to fix or settle firmlysamādhi - putting together; communion; combining; integrationsamāhita - one who has collected his thoughts, devout, steadfast, firmsāman - force or power of articulation; the faculty of uttering soundssamāna - digestive air, middle breath; alike, similar, equalsamanvayāt - regular succession or order, connected sequence or consequence, conjunction, mutual or immediate connection; in consequence ofsāmānya - general, generic, not specific, alike, similarsamāpatti - coming together, unitysamāpti - conclusionsamāsatas - in a summary manner, succinctly, conciselysamasthiti - constancy; equanimitysamatvam - equanimitysamavṛtti - equal movementsamaya - circumstances; appointed or proper time; agreement; regulatesaṃbandha - connection, binding or joining together, close union or associationsaṃbhava - production, springing up, arising, existence; cause, reason, occasionsaṃbodha - understandingsaṃgṛhītatvā - connection; held togethersaṃhananatvā - robustnesssaṃhāra - destruction; contraction, drawing in; conclusionsaṃhatya - having combinedsaṃhitā - collection; placed together; joined or connected; relating to, concerning; connected with, proceeding fromsāmīpya - neighbourhood, nearness, proximitysaṃjñā - to acknowledge, recognize, own; to acknowledge or claim as one's own, take possession ofsaṃkalpa - will, volition, desire, purpose, definite intentionsaṃkalpaka - determining, deciding, purposing; it is deliberativesaṃkara - completely mixed, mixing together, commingling, intermixturesāṃkhya - enumeration; a numbersāṃkhyakārikā - a collection of 72 memorial verses or stanzas by Īśvara Kṛṣṇa; the oldest extant systematic exposition of the S° systemsaṃkīrṇā - interspersed, intermixedsaṃkīrtana - संकीर्तनsaṃmoha - bewilderment; stupefaction; insensibility, unconsciousness; folly, illusion of mindsaṃnidhi - in the presencesaṃnyāsa - renunciation; a life stagesaṃpat - perfection, destinysaṃpradāya - convention; tradition, established doctrine transmitted from one teacher to another, traditional belief or usagesaṃprajñāta - distinguished, discerned, known accurately; completely known; total knowingsāmpratakāla - the present timesaṃprayoga - total joining togethersaṃsāra - going or wandering through, passing through a succession of statessaṃśaya - doubtsāṃsiddhika - effected naturally, belonging to nature, natural, native, innate; self-existent, existing by its own nature or essence, existing absolutely, absolutesaṃskāra - tendencies, psychological imprint, mental impression, habitual potency; making ready, preparation; a sacred or sanctifying ceremonysaṃtoṣa - satisfaction; contentedness withsamudaya - coming together, union, junction, combination, collection, assemblage, multitude, aggregation, aggregatesaṃvedana - to fully experience; completely knowingsaṃvega - ardour; excitementsaṃvid - an understandingsāmya - equality, evenness, equilibrium, equipoise, equal or normal state; likeness, sameness, identity withsaṃyama - complete restraintsaṃyoga - conjunctionsaṃdhi - junction, connection; containing a conjunction or transition from one to the other; euphonic junction of final and initial letters in grammarsaṅga - company, association, friendship, friendly intercourse; coming together, joining; meeting, union, confluence; attachment, fondness, desire; to cohabit, have sexual intercourse with;saṃgha - any collection or assemblage, heap, multitude, quantity, crowd, host, number; a multitude of sages; a host of enemies; the whole community or collective body or brotherhood of monkssaṅghāta - assemblage, multitude, heap, quantity; association, combinationsaṃskṛta - ancient indic languagesaṃtāna - coherence, connection, transitionsapta - sevensaptadaśa - consisting of seventeen; connected with seventeen; having seventeen attributessaptadhā - sevenfoldsarasvatī - name of the goddess of eloquence and learningsarga - emission or creation of matter, primary creation, creation of the world; a created being, creature; letting go, discharging, voidingsarpa - a snake, serpent, serpent-demonsarūpa - having the same shape or form, uniform, similar, like, resemblingsārūpya - conformity with, sameness or similarity of form, identity of appearance, resemblance, likenesssarva - allsarvāṅgāsana - all parts posturesarvathā - in every way, at all timessat - that which really is, entity or existence, essence, the true being or really existent; that which is good or real or true, good, advantage, reality, truthsatas - equally, likesati - beingsatkāra - kind treatment, honour, favour, reverence; care, attention, consideration of or regard for a thingsatkārya - that which is effected, the necessary existence of an effect; deserving of honour or hospitalitysatkāryavāda - the doctrine of the actual existence of an effect (in its cause)sattva - clarity; the quality of transparency or purity; luminous; honesty; the quality of goodness; material or elementary substance, entity, matter; nature, disposition of mind; being, existence, entity, realitysatya - truthful; honesty; sincere; genuine; actualsaumanasya - open-mindednesssāvayava - having parts, composed of partssavicārā - unrefined subtle reflectionsavitarkā - unrefined gross deliberationśabda - words, sound, languageśaithilya - decrease; looseness; relaxationśakti - power, energy; ability, capability; strength; might, effort;śamana - palliating, allayingśānta - quiescentśānti - tranquillity, peace, quiet, peace or calmness of mind, absence of passion, averting of pain; any expiatory or propitiatory rite for averting evil or calamityśarīra - any solid body; bodily frame; one's bodyṣaṣ - sixśāsana - teachings; doctrine; instruction, discipline; teaching, instructing, an instructorśāstra - precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatiseśauca - cleanlinessśava - corpse, dead bodyśavāsana - corpse poseśeṣa - remainderśikṣaṇa - teaching, instruction in; the act of learning, acquiring knowledgeśīla - character, nature; habit, custom, usage, natural or acquired way of living or acting, practice, conduct, disposition, tendencyśiṣya - pupil, discipleśītalī - coolingśloka - type of verse metreśodhana - cleansing, refining, purifyingśraddhā - having faith, believing in, trusting, faithful, having confidenceśrāvaṇa - hearingśravika - heard spiritual teachingsśrī - blessedśrotra - sense of hearing; earśruta - oral transmissionśuci - pureśuddha - pure, cleansed, cleared, clean, clear, free fromśūnya - empty, voidśvāsa - inhalationśī - sleepingsiddha - accomplished one; admitted to be true or right, established, settled, proved; a kind of medicinal plant or rootsiddhi - accomplishment, performance, fulfilment, attainment, successśīrṣa - the head; upper part, tip, topśīrṣāsana - the head posturesītkārī - śiva - the auspicious one; name of of the disintegrating or destroying and reproducing deity; third god of the hindu trinityśivasaṃhitā - collection or proceeding as if from śiva; the compendium of śivasmaya - conceitsmṛti - remembrance; memory; mindfulness; the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers and constantly revisedṣoḍaśaka - consisting of sixteen, aggregate of sixteensoma - moon; plant; an extract; a godsparśa - touch; any quality which is perceptible by touching any objectśreyas - better state, better fortune or condition; auspicious; preferable; rather thansṛṣṭi - creationśruti - hearing , listening; the ear, organ or power of hearing; that which is heard or perceived with the ear; sacred eternal sounds or words as heard by sages, differing from smṛti or what is only remembered and handed down in writing by authorsstambha - suspension; stoppage, obstruction, suppressionsteya - practice of stealing; something that can be stolenstha - abidingsthairya - steadfastness, steadinesssthāna - site, place; being fixed or stationarysthānin - high positionsthāṇu - a stump, stem, trunk, stake, post, pile, pillarstheya - to be stationed or fixed or settled; to be stayed or remained in; to be fixed onsthira - steady, firm, not wavering or totteringsthiti - staying or remaining or being in any state or condition; maintenance of life;sthūla - gross, tangible, material; large, thick, stout, massive, bulky, big, hugestotra - ode, eulogy, hymn of praisestyāna - dullnesssu - good, excellent, right, virtuousśuddhi - cleansing; purification; purity; holiness; freedom from defilement; purificatory ritesukha - pleasure; happiness; agreeable; ease; comfortable; pleasantsukhāsana - a comfortable seat; easy posturesukṛta - a good or righteous deed, meritorious act, virtue, moral merit; well done or made or formed or executedsūkṣma - subtle; atomic; intangiblesūkta - well or properly said or recited; song of praise; a Vedic hymnsukumāratara - more delicate; more modestsupta - lain down, supinesupta padaṅguṣṭhāsana - lying holding big toe posturesūrya - sunsūrya bhedana - sun piercingsuṣumnā - arterysūtra - threadsva - own; one's self, one's own, my own, thy own, his own, her own, our own, their ownsvabhāva - innate or inherent disposition; own condition or state of beingsvadharma - own highest dutysvādhiṣṭhāna - ones own placesvādhyāya - to study; to read; sacred recitation; study of the selfsvāmin - an owner, proprietor, master, lord or owner ofśvan - dog, houndsvapna - dreaming, a dream; sleep, sleeping; sleepiness, drowsiness; sleeping too much, sloth, indolencesvara - tone, accent or musical note in recitationsvarita - caused to sound, sounded, having an accent, accentuatedsvārthe - one's own affair or cause, personal matter or advantage, self-interestsvarūpa - own character; own form or shape; own condition, peculiarity, character, naturesvastha - self abidingsvatantra - self-dependence, independence, self-willsvātmārāma - name of an authorsyãt - could besyuḥ - ought to be; should be; areback to toptad - that, thistadā - then, from that time forward, at any time whentaḍāka - a tank, pooltaḍākamudrā - tank sealtāḍāsana - palm tree pose; mountain posetadvat - having or containing that; like that, thus, sotaijasa - originating from or consisting of lighttairyagyona - of animal origintaittirīya - a partridge; pupils of tittiritālavya - palatal; relating to the palatetamas - obscuring; mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error; deprived of the eye's light or sight; darkness, gloomtāmasa - appertaining to or affected by the quality tamas; ignorant, various; darknesstāmisra - darkness; the dark half of the month; indignation, angertanmātra - thatness, only that; a rudimentary or subtle element;tantra - a loom; depending on, framework; doctrine, rule, theory; a class of works teaching magical and mystical formulariestanū - attenuating, thinning, weakeningtap - to heat, to burn; to be hot; to suffer paintāpa - craving; heat; afflictiontapas - to heat; religious austerity; self-discipline; pain, sufferingtārā - startāraka - liberatingtārāvalī - a multitude of starstark - to reflect, think of, recollect, have in one's mindtāsām - of thesetasmai - to thattasmāt - from that, on that account, thereforetasmin - in thistasya - its, of it, of thistat - that, thistatas - hence, from thattathā - so, like, after that manner.tatra - in that place, there; thither, to that place; in that, therein, in that case, on that occasion, under those circumstances, then, thereforetattva - principle; thatnesstayoḥ - of bothte - thesetebhyaḥ - from these; from thosetejas - glow; glare; splendour; brilliance; light elementtena - in that manner, thusteṣām - of thosetiṣṭhati - to subsist; abide; stay; reside; sit; stop; dwelltīvra - intensetrāṭakam - fixing the eyes on an objecttraya - the threetrayodaśavidha - of thirteen kindstri - threetridhā - in 3 ways, in 3 parts, in 3 placestrikālam - the 3 times; relating to themtrividha - three foldtṛṣ - to be thirsty, to wishtṛṣṇā - thirst; desire, aviditytu - moreover; buttūla - cottontulya - samenesstuṣ - be content, be satisfied or pleased with any one;tuṣṭi - satisfaction, contentmenttvak - sense of touching; skin; cinnamon;tvam - thoutyāga - forsaken; abandonment, desertion; quitting; giving up, sacrifice, renunciationtyaktvā - having left; having abandonedback to topubhaya - bothucyate - be spoken or said, or told, or utteredudāna - upward airudāra - aroused; exciting, effecting; active, energetic; rising fog or vapourudāsīna - sitting apart, indifferent, free from affection; a stranger, neutral; one who is neither friend nor foeudātta - acute accent, high pitch; lifted upraised, elevated; the acute accent, a high or sharp toneudaya - arising; going up, rising; swelling up; coming forth, becoming visible, appearance, developmentuddiṣṭā - mentioned, particularized, specially told; described; said to beuḍḍīyāna - flying upuḍḍīyana bandha - flying up binding; abdominal lockudita - uprisenudvega - trembling, waving, shaking; agitation, anxiety; regret, fear, distressūha - consideration, deliberation, examination; supposition, conclusion, inference; the act of comprehending, conceivingujjāyī - upwards victoryukrānti - going aboveukta - it is saidunmanas - excited or disturbed in mind, perplexedupa - near toupādāna - cause, motive, material cause; material of any kind; the act of taking for one's self, appropriating to one's self; grasping at or clinging to existenceupadeśa - instruction, teachingupadiṣṭa - taught, instructedupadiśya - having indicated or taught; indicating, teachingupakārin - helping, serving, beneficial, assisting, doing a favourupalabdhi - apprehensionupanimantraṇa - invitationupaniṣat - to sit down near to; esoteric doctrine; a class of philosophical writingsuparāga - the act of dyeing or colouring; a variation in the musical modeuparakta - dyed, coloured, coloured red; heated, inflameduparama - cessation, stopping, expiration; leaving off, desisting, giving up; deathupāsana - stay near, worshipupasarga - impediments; misfortune, trouble, a natural phenomenon; a disease superinduced on another; additionupaṣṭambhaka - strengthening; stimulation; excitingupastha - generative organ, the act of procreationupasthāna - appearupaviṣṭa - seated, sittingupaviṣṭa koṇāsana - seated, sitting angle postureupāya - approach, coming near; that by which one reaches one's aim, a means, way, stratagem, craftupe - to go or come or step near, approachupekṣā - disinterest, overlooking, disregard, indifferenceūrdhva - upwards, towards the upper part; aloof, aboveūrdhva mukha śvānāsana - upward facing dog poseūrdhva prasṛta pādāsana - upward extended leg postureūrmi - a wave, billow; 'the waves of existence'uttarāṅga - descent; last part; the last sound of combined consonantsutkaṭa - intenseutkaṭāsana - Standing Squat Poseutpannā - arisesutsarga - pouring out, pouring forth, emission, dejection, excretion, voiding by stooluttama - most elevated, principal; uppermost, highest, chief; best, excellentuttāna - stretched out; spread oututtānāsana - standing intense stretch or forward bend postureuttara - other; later, following, subsequent, latter, concluding, followed by; posteriorutthita - extended; rising (from a seat), stand; extended; elevatedback to top - orvāc - the act of speaking; utter a soundvācaka - expression; verbal , expressed by words; speaking, saying, telling anythingvacana - the act of speaking , utterance; statement, declarationvāda - a thesis, proposition, argument, doctrine; speaking, saying; causing to sound, playingvadanti - they sayvadhā - a defect, imperfectionvahana - bearing, carrying, conveying; vehiclevāhī - continuous; carrying; bearing; flowsvāhitā - flowvaikalya - imperfection, weakness, defectiveness, defect, frailtyvaikharī - the faculty of speech or the divinity presiding over it; speech in the fourth of its four stages from the first stirring of the air or breath, that utterance of sounds or words which is complete as consisting of full and intelligible sentencesvaikṛta - modified, derivative, secondary; undergoing change, subject to modificationvaikṛtika - subject to change; changed, incidental; a production or evolved principlevaira - animosityvairāgya - dispassion, disinclination, detachment, non-attachment; indifference to worldly objects and to lifevaiṣamya - difficulty, trouble, distress, calamity; solitariness, singleness; inequality, oddness, diversity, disproportionvaiśāradya - maturationvaiṣṇava - relating or belonging or devoted or consecrated to Viṣṇuvaiśvarūpya - manifoldness, multiplicity, diversityvajra - ‘the hard or mighty one’, adamantine, a diamond; a thunderbolt; a kind of column or pillarvajrāsana - thunderbolt or diamond posturevākya - वाक्यvama - vomiting, ejecting, giving outvāma - the left side; acting in the opposite way or differentlyvanaprastha - retiring into a forest; living the life of an anchorite; a life stagevaraṇa - surroundingvaraṇaka - covering, covering over, concealingvarṇa - type; order; colour; classvārtā - smellingvāsanā - latent impressions; the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind; the act of perfumingvaśīkāra - masteryvastu - any really existing or abiding substance or essence, thing, objectvaśyatā - controlvat - an affix added to words to imply likeness or resemblance, and generally translatable by ‘as’, ‘like’vāta - wind principlevatsa - a calf, the young of any animal, offspring, childvaya - agevāyava - relating or belonging to the wind or airvāyu - wind; air elementveda - sacred lorevedana - touch, sensation, feeling; perception, knowledgevedāṅga - limbs of the Vedavedanīya - experiencedvedānta - conclusion of the sacred lorevega - outbreak, outburst, excitement, agitationvibhāga - distinctionvibhakta - separatevibhrāj - to shine forth, be bright or radiantvibhūti - special manifestation; super-natural; extra-ordinaryvibudha - wise or learned man, teacher; destitute of learned menvicāra - subtle or special reflectionviccheda - cutting asunder, cleaving, piercing, breaking, dividing, separation; interruption, discontinuance, cessation; caesura, pause in a versevicchinna - inconsistent, interrupted, disconnected, incoherent; cut or torn or split or cleft or broken asundervid - to know, understand, perceive, be conscious of, have a correct notion ofvideha - discarnate, without body; bodiless, incorporealvidhāraṇā - retaining; detainingvidvāṃs - wise personvidyā - any knowledge whether true or false; knowledge of the soul or spiritual knowledge; true knowledge; science, learning, scholarship, philosophyvighāta - destruction, ruin; removal, prohibition, prevention, interruptionvihāra - recreation; sport, play, pastime, diversion, enjoyment, pleasure; going about for pleasure or exercise, roaming, strolling; taking out for a walk or for airing; walking for pleasure or amusementviharaṇa - stepping out; moving to and fro, brandishing;vihita - destined or meant for; prescribed, decreed, enjoinedvijñāna - special knowing, comprehensionvijñānamaya - consisting of special knowingvikalpa - false notion, fancy, imagination; mental occupationvikāra - change of form or nature, alteration or deviation from any natural state, change of bodily or mental condition (esp. for the worse); disease; sickness; hurt; perturbation; emotion; agitationvikaraṇa - without instrumentsvikṛti - changed in nature; changed condition; any production; formation, growth, developmentvikṣepa - distraction, inattention, confusion, perplexity; scattering, dispersion; moving about, to and frovikṣipta - occasionally steady; able to withdraw itself from painful objectsvilakṣaṇa - having different marks, varying in character, different, differing fromvilamba - slownessviloma - against the grainviloma krama - विलोम क्रमviloma ujjāyī - against the grain upwards victoryvimarda - touch, contact; crushing, bruising, grinding, pounding, rubbing, frictionvimarśana - discussing; investigation; examinationvimocayati - set free; deliver from; liberatevimokṣa - release, deliverance from; liberation;vinā - withoutvinivartate - ceases to function; disengagesviniyoga - employment, use, application; apportionment, distribution, divisionvinyāsa - special placing; arrangement, disposition, order; putting together, connectingvinyāsakrama - arrangement in a sequence; special placing step by stepvipāka - results; effect, result, consequence; ripening, maturing; digestion; conversion of food into a state for assimilationviparīta - reversed , invertedviparītakaraṇī - reverse formviparyasta - turned over, reversed, opposite, contrary; interchanged, invertedviparyaya - wrong perception, misapprehension, error, mistake; intrinsic misconception; reversed, inverted, perverse, contrary toviprakṛṣṭa - distantvīra - a herovīrabhadra - auspicious hero; a warriorvīrabhadrāsana - warrior posevirāga - indifference to external things or worldly objects; passionless, without feeling, dispassionate, excitement, irritation; indifferent; aversion, dislike or indifference to; change or loss of colourvirāma - cessation, to come to an end, restvirodha - opposing; opposition, hostility, quarrel, strife between; conflict with; contradiction, contrariety;virūpa - many-coloured, variegated, multiform, manifold, variousvīrya - vigour, power, potency; heroism, prowess, valourviṣāda - despairviśāla - abundant in, full of; spacious, extensive, broad, wide, largeviṣamavṛtti - unequal movementviṣayavant - as an objectviśeṣa - distinction, difference between; a kind, species, individual; characteristic difference, peculiar mark, special property, speciality, peculiarityviṣaya - an object of sense; anything perceptible by the senses; any object of affection or concern or attentionviśinaṣṭi - to particularize, individualize, specify, define; make distinct or differentviśiṣṭādvaita - qualified non-dualismviṣṇu - the all-pervader; the preserver; name of one of the principal hindu deities;viśokā - free from sorrow; cessation of sorrow; without sorrowviśuddhi - special purityviśva - universalvīta - free from; smoothvitarka - gross deliberation; negative deliberationvitṛṣṇasya - absence of thirstviveka - discrimination, discernment; the faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties; the power of separating the invisible Spirit from the visible world (or spirit from matter); truth from untruthvivekin - discernervivṛddhi - growth, increase, augmentation, enlargement, furthering, promotionviyoga - unyoking, separationvrajet - can achievevrata - vowvṛkṣa - tree; the trunk of a tree; any tree bearing visible flowers and fruitvṛkṣāsana - tree posturevṛścika - scorpionvṛt - to move or go on, get along, advance, proceed; take place, occur, be performed, come offvṛtti - fluctuation; modification; turning; set in motion, course of action, behaviour, movement; activity, function; profession, mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviourvṛtya - to be surrounded or encompassed; to be abided or stayed or remainedvyādhi - disorder, disease, ailmentvyākhyā - explanation, exposition, gloss, commentaryvyākhyātā - explained; that explains or expoundsvyakta - caused to appear, manifested, apparent, visible, evidentvyāna - circulatory airvyāsa - arranger, compiler, codifiervyavahita - concealedvyavatiṣṭhate - in different roles; appears in different roles; performsvyūha - arrangement, placing apart, distribution; orderly arrangement of the parts of a whole;vyutthāna - turned outward; swerving from the right course; rising upvyutthita - strongly excited or agitated; swerving from dutyback to top - whoyajña - act of worship or devotion; offering, oblation, sacrificeyājñavalkya - an eponymous Vedic sageyama - restraintsyasmāt - from whichyathā - according asyatna - effort, exertion, energy, zeal, trouble, pains, care, endeavour after; performance, work; activity of will, volition, aspiring afteryatra - where, to which place; journeyyatta - attended to, guided; engaged in, intent upon, prepared for, ready to; endeavoured, strivenyena - whereby, by which, wherefore, on which account, by means of whichyoga - the act of yoking, joining, attaching, harnessing; a yoke, team, vehicle, conveyance; employment, use, application, performance; a means, expedient, device, way, manner, methodyogasūtra - aphorisms of the Yoga system of philosophy ascribed to Patañjaliyogyatva - capabilityyogin - a follower of the yoga systemyogin - a follower of the yoga systemyogyatā - fitness, ability, capability, suitableness, proprietyyuga - an age of the world; long mundane period of yearsyugapad - together, at the same time, simultaneouslyyuj - to yoke, join, fasten, harness; to unite, connect, add, bring togetheryukta - connected; skilful; made use ofyukti - union, junction, connection, combinationback to top