Romanised Saṃskṛta Sūtra Glossary


A lesser known facet of the Yoga Texts and Freenotes section of the Website is the Romanised Saṃskṛta Core Glossary and Cross Reference Guide. It started life as word by word linked index for the online Yoga Sūtra verses offering a meaning and a cross Sūtra reference resource when exploring related verses.

However as more Yoga Related Texts were added to the online Database it was obvious that the glossary needed to include related terms from other textual sources that matched or correlated with those in the Yoga Sūtra. So the glossary now adds terms from related sources such as the Sāṃkhya Kārikā, the Bhagavad Gītā, the Gītārtha Saṃgraha and Haṭha Yoga Texts, though inevitably these will expand even further over time.

The core word is shown in Romanised Saṃskṛta  and Devanāgarī script, along with a suggested translation or translations where it may have several meanings within different contexts. This is complemented by cross referencing Similar and Opposite Words, Related Concepts and Collected Commentaries, all drawn together as themes around the Core Word, from the many posts around these topics on the Yoga Journal section of the website. This will hopefully help the reader navigate and utilise the ever increasing number of resources.

abhāva - non-appearance, non-existence, absenceabhaya - unfearful; undauntedabhibhava - disappearanceabhighāta - infliction of injury, damageabhighātaka - counteracting, removingabhihāra - mingling togetherabhijātasya - preciousabhimāna - high opinion of one's self, self-conceit, pride, haughtinessabhimata - appropriate; longed for, wished, desiredabhiniveśa - tenacity; the will to stay alive, survival instinct, clinging to life, fear of death, instinctive clinging to worldly life and bodily enjoyments and the fear that one might be cut off from all of them by deathabhivyakti - manifestationābhyantara - internalabhyāsa - practiceācārya - preceptor, spiritual teacheracetana - without consciousness, inanimate; unconscious, insensible, senselessādāna - taking, seizing;ādara - enthusiasm; to exert or interest one's self forādarśa - seeingādau - from the first or beginning, at firstadhama - lowestādhāra - support, prop; that which contains; dike, damadharma - unrighteousness; injustice; irreligion; what is not right or natural; or not in accordance to śāstrasadhas - below, downadhigama - realised; attainedadhimātra - excessive; above measure; extremeadhiṣṭhāna - standing by, being at hand, approach; standing or resting upon; government, authority, poweradhiṣthātṛtva - omnipotenceadhvan - wayadhyāsā - overlappingadhyātma - inner essenceadhyātmika - concerning the essenceadhyavasāya - mental effort, apprehension; determination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruitadhyāya - a lesson; lecture; chapter; reading; proper time for reading or for a lessonadhyayanam - also going over, recitation, repetition; reading, studying, especially the vedasādi - in the beginning, at first; beginning, commencement; a firstling, first-fruits; beginning with, et caetera, and so on; and the restadṛṣta - unseenadvaita - not two, non-dualismādya - first, being at the beginningāgama - testimony; anything handed down and fixed by traditionagni - fireagrya - pointednessaham - I; I amahaṃkāra - individuation; conception of individuality; the making of selfāhāra - eating; taking foodahiṃsā - non-harming; less harmingāhuḥ - it is said; is calledaiśvarya - the state of being a mighty lord, sovereignty, supremacy, power, sway; superhuman powerajapa - unpronounced; the Mantra or formula called Haṃsa (which consists only of a number of inhalations and exhalations).ājñā - commandajñāna - ignoranceajñāni - one who doesn't know; one who thinks they knowajñāta - not knownakalpitā - non-imaginaryākāra - form / shapeakaraṇa - not making, effectingākarṇa - up to earakartṛ - not an agentākāśa - space; ether; subtle and ethereal fluid; sky, atmosphereākhyāta - said, told, declared, made knownakliṣṭa - not afflicted, tormented, distressedakrama - non-sequentialakṛṣṇa - not blackakṣara - imperishableākṣepīn - transcendsākuñcana - bending; contracting; drawing up, in; closing upakusīda - disinterested in gainingalabdha - non-attainment, unobtainedālambana - supporting, resting onālasya - laziness; idlealiṅga - unmanifestālocana - seeing, perceiving; considering, reflecting, reflection,āloka - light, lustre, splendour; sight, aspect, visionalpa - littleāma - uncookedamṛtam - nectaran - breatheanabhighāta - not troubledanāditva - beginninglessnessanāgata - not yet comeanāhata - unstuck, produced otherwise than by beatingānanda - happiness, joy, enjoyment, sensual pleasure; the thing wished forānandamaya - consisting of blissananta - endless, boundless, eternal, infinite; the first serpentānantarya - successionānantya - due to endlessnessanāśaya - without seeds, depositsanaṣṭa - not disappearedanāstika - heterodoxanātman - other than essenceanavacchedā - not separatedanavacchinnā - not boundanavadhāraṇa - not ascertainedanavasthita - losing stability, unsettled, unsteady,andha - blind; dark; turbid water, wateraneka - other; not one, many, muchaṅga - a limb; the bodyaṇiman - minutenessaniṣṭa - unwanted, undesirable, unfavourableanitya - transitoryañjali - the open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed, reverence, salutation, benediction; a measure of corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side by sideañjanatā - assume the colour of an objectannam - foodannamaya - consisting of foodanta - end (from ... to)antar - internalantara - otherantarāya - intervention, obstacleantardhāna - disappearanceaṇu - minuteanu - follow, one after another, followinganubhāvana - following cultivationanubhūta - experience, experienced; resulted, followed as a consequenceanudātta - low pitch, grave accent; one of the three accents to be observed in reading the veda; not raised, not elevatedanugama - followsanuguṇa - similar qualitiesanukāra - imitatinganuloma - with the grainanumāna - inference; the act of inferring or drawing a conclusionanumodita - by approvalanupalabdhi - non-recognition, non-perceptionanupaśya - apperceive; one who sees; perceiving; seeing; observesanupātin - followinganuśayin - following upon, connected with as a consequenceanuṣṭhāna - doing; performance; practice; execution; to live with and put the teachings into practiceanuttama - unsurpassed, incomparably the best or chief, excellentanvaya - connectionanya - different from, other thananyatā - differenceanyathā - otherwise, in a different manneranyatva - anotheranyonya - one another, mutualāp - water elementapa - down; away, offāpad - to bring into trouble or misfortuneapāna - downward airaparāmṛṣṭa - untouchedaparānta - ultimate end, deathaparigraha - non-grasping; less grasping; not grasping all around; non-possessiveness; non-covetousnessapariṇāmitvā - non-transformativeapārtha - without any object, useless, unprofitable, worthlessāpatti - assumesapavarga - completion, end; the emancipation of the soul from bodily existence, exemption from further transmigrationapekṣā - interest, anticipation, looking for, expectation, hope, need, requirementapeta - removed off; gone away, departed; disappeared; free fromapi - even, also, although; very; something more; moreoverapramāṇaka - not perceivableapratisaṃkrama - non-changing; having no intermixtureaprayojaka - not the initiatoraprīti - dislike, aversion, enmityāpta - a credible or authoritative personapuṇya - non-meritorious; wicked; unvirtuousāpūrā - flowāraṇyaka - forest, wild, forest-born, produced in a forest; a class of religious and philosophical writings either composed in forests or studied thereardha - half; one part of twoariṣṭa - portents, omenaroga - free from disease, healthy, wellārogya - absence of illnessarogya - healthyartha - purpose, aim; meaning; thing, objectarthatā - objectsarthavattva - significance, importanceāryā - type of verse metreās - to sit, sit down; to be present; abide, remainas - to be, live, exist, be present; to take place, happen; to abide, dwell, stay; to belong toasāmānya - not common, specialasaṃkhyeya - innumerableasaṃkīrṇa - unblendedasaṃpramoṣa - retentionasaṃprayoga - disengagementasaṃsarga - non-associationāsana - particular posture; sitting, sitting down; seat, place, stool; abiding, dwellingasaṅga - non-associationāsanna - nearasat - unreal; wrongāśaya - seed, deposit; resting placeāsevita - attend toasi - art; areasiddha - not existing or not having taken effect; imperfect, incomplete, unaccomplished, uneffectedasinā - swordāśis - premordial desireasmāt - from thisasmitā - egoity; the sense of 'I' am-nessāśrama - life stages; a hermitageāśraya - correspondence; that to which anything is annexed, or with which anything is closely connected, or on which anything depends or rests; substratumāśrayatva - correspondsāśrita - subject to, depending onaṣṭa - eightaṣṭāṅga - eight limbsasteya - not practicing stealing; non-stealing; less stealingasti - existsāstika - orthodoxaśuci - impureaśuddhi - impurityaśukla - not whiteāsura - demonicāsvāda - tastingaśvinī - horseasya - hisataḥ - therefore, thus, consequently, henceatat - not thatatha - now, 'now' (begins); an auspicious and inceptive particle; A particle used at the beginning (of works) mostly as a sign of auspiciousnessatidūra - a great distance, very distantatiprasaṅga - infinite coming togetheratīndriya - Beyond the cognizance (reach) of the sensesatiśaya - excess, excessive; eminence, superiorityatīta - pastātmaka - taking the role of our essenceātman - essence; the highest personal principle of life; the individual soul, selfātmatā - nature; essenceatyanta - absolutely, completely, to the end; endless, unbroken, perpetual; permanencyāvaraṇa - covering, hiding, concealing; shutting, enclosing; an obstruction, interruptionavasthā - stateavasthāna - abiding, residing, dwelling; standing, taking up one's place; situation, conditionavatāra - descended from the heaven; appearance of any deity upon earth; any new and unexpected appearanceāveśa - enteringavibhāga - no separation, no distinction betweenavidyā - illusion; spiritual ignorance; connate misidentificationavikṛti - unchanged; being in its natural condition; not developedaviplavā - unwaveringavirati - over-indulgence, intemperance; incontinenceaviṣayī - not objectaviśeṣa - indistinct, without any difference, uniformaviśuddhi - Impurityaviveka - absence of judgement or discrimination; non-separation, non-distinctionavyakta - undeveloped, not manifest, unapparent, indistinct, invisible, imperceptibleavyapadeśya - undeterminedavyāpi - not pervading, not comprehensive, the thing which never remains everywhereāyāma - stretching, extending; restraining, restrainedayugapad - not at once, not simultaneously; not all together, graduallyāyurveda - sacred lore of longevityāyus - span of lifeback to topbadh - to oppress; to harassbādhana - oppressedbahis - externalbahutva - muchness, abundance, multitude; plurality, majoritybāhya - externalbaka - a kind of heron or cranebakāsana - Crane Posebala - strength, might, force; force or power of articulationbandh - to bind, tie, fix, fasten, chain, fetterbandha - binding, tying, a bond, tie, chain, fetterbandhana - binding, tying, fetteringbasti - bladderbhadra - auspiciousbhagavat - divinebhakti - devotionbharā - carriesbhās - to shine, be bright; to appearbhāsa - luminosity, light, lustre, brightnessbhastrikā - bellowsbhāṣya - commentary, expositionbhāva - becoming, being, existing, occurring, appearancebhava - re-emerge; coming into existence; birth; productionbhāvana - cultivation; imagining, fancying; forming in the mind; to occupy one's imagination with, conceptionbhāvanā - reflection, contemplation; direct one's thoughts to; feeling of devotion, faith inbhaya - fear, alarm, dread, apprehensionbheda - divide, piercebheka - frogbhī - to fear, be afraidbhogā - worldly experiencebhoktṛ - one who enjoys or eats, enjoyer, eater, experiencer, feeler, suffererbhrāmarī - relating to a beebhrānti - fallaciousbhū - to become, be, arise, come into beingbhuj - bend, curvebhujaṅga - a serpent, a snakebhūmi - stage; ground; floor of a house; foundation; a place, situationbhūmikatva - of a stagebhūta - element; living beingbhūtatvā - elementalism; being-nessbhuvana - worldbīja - seedbrahmacarya - continence; conservation; a life stagebrahman - that which expands; the absolute, the eternalbrāhmaṇa - Brahmanical explanation of rules or directions for ritesbṛṃhaṇa - buildingbuddhi - the intellectual faculty; comprehension; intelligence, discernment, judgementbudh - to wake, wake up, be awake; to know to be, recognize asback to topca - andcakra - wheelcakṣus - sense of seeing; eyecala - agitation. disturbed, unsteadycandra - mooncāpalya - agitation, fickleness, unsteadinesscar - to move or travel through, pervade, go alongcatur - fourcaturtha - fourthcatuṣṭaya - a set of 4, quaternioncet - if socetanā - consciousnesschidra - in the breaks / intervalscikitsā - therapeutics; medical treatmentcit - awareness, consciousness; to be aware of; to cause to comprehend, to observe; perceivecitra - speckledcitta - psyche (the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious); mind; heartback to topdaiva - divinedakṣiṇa - right, southerndāna - donation, gift; giving up; communicating, imparting, teachingdāna - the act of giving; to offer a giftdaṇḍa - stick, staff, rod, poledarśana - view; seeingdarśin - one who has seen; seeing, looking at, observing, examining, finding; knowing, understandingdasa - tendaurmanasya - negative thinking; dejectedness; melancholydāyaka - giving, granting, bestowingdeha - the bodydeśa - place, point, region, spotdevanāgarī - divine city scriptdevatā - image of a deity; divinitydevavāṇī - a divine voice; language of the godsdevī - a female deity, goddessdhā - putting, placingdhana - wealth, riches, property, money, treasuredhāraṇā - collection or concentration of the mind; to exercise concentration; the act of holding, bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining;dharma - essential qualities, according to the nature of anything; highest duty; customary observance or prescribed conductdharmīn - substratumdhātu - element of words (grammatical or verbal root or stem); primary element of the earth (metal, mineral); constituent part, ingredient; a constituent element or essential ingredient of the bodydhauti - the act of washingdhruva - pole stardhyā - thinking, meditationdhyai - meditate; contemplate; think ofdhyāna - meditation; mental representation of the personal attributes of a deitydhyāta - that which meditatesdhyāya - meditating ondhyeya - to be meditated ondīpti - illuminatesdīrgha - long, for a long time; a long voweldivya - divinedoṣa - affection, defect, fault, biological humoursdrā - to sleepdraṣṭṛ - seerdravya - a substance, thing, object; the ingredients or materials of anything; medicinal substance or drugdṛḍha - firm; soliddṛś - to seedṛśi - seeing; the power of seeingdṛṣṭa - seendṛśya - the seendṛśyatva - due to the quality of the seenduḥkha - suffering, pain, sorrowfuldurgā - invincible, impassable, unassailable; fortress, citadel stronghold; a difficult or narrow passage, a place difficult of access; the inaccessible or terrific goddessdus - a prefix to nouns; implying evil, bad, difficult, hard; badly, hardly; slight, inferiorduṣkṛta - badly arranged or organized or applieddvadasa - twelvedvaita - duality, dualismdvaṃdva - pair of oppositesdveṣa - aversion; hatred; animosity; dislike; repugnancedvi - twodvidha - divided in 2, split asunder, forkedback to topejayatva - unsteadinesseka - oneekādaśaka - consisting of eleven; the eleventhekāgra - one-pointed; having one point; fixing one's attention upon one point or objectekāgratā - intentness in the pursuit of one object; close and undisturbed attentionekānta - solely, only, exclusively; absoluteness, certaintyekatānatā - continuityekatra - in the same placeekatvā - uniquenesseṣām - of these; of themeṣa - whichetad - this, this here, here; sometimes used to give emphasis to the personal pronouns; it refers also to that which followsetayā - by thisetena - by thiseva - thusback to topgamana - travelgaṇa - a number; a flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, classgaṇapati - the leader of a class or troop or assemblagegaṇḍa - the cheek, side of the facegandha - odour; smellgaṇeśa - the god of wisdom and of obstacles; though Gaṇeśa causes obstacles he also removes them; hence he is invoked at the commencement of all undertakings and at the opening of all compositionsgarbha - wombgati - going, moving, gait, deportment, motion in generalgāyatrī - chant metre; a hymn composed in the gāyatrī metre; an ancient metre of twenty-four syllables;ghana - method of reciting the text of the vedaghāta - injuring, hurtinggheraṇḍa - name of a teacherghrāṇa - sense of smelling; noseghṛta - ghee; clarified buttergītā - songgodha - iguana; lizardgraha - graspgrahaṇa - the process of graspinggṛhastha - standing in the home; living or staying in any one's house; householder; a life stagegrahītṛ - that which is graspinggrāhya - that which is graspedgranthi - knotgrata - pointednessguṇa - attributes of nature; qualitiesguru - teacherguhya - mysteryback to tophāna - the act of abandoning, relinquishing, giving up, escaping, getting rid of; gone or departed; cessationhasta - handhasti - elephanthaṭha - force, forcefulhetu - cause, cause of; motive; reason forhetumat - having a reason or cause, proceeding from a causehetutvā - causality; causation; existence of cause or motiveheya - overcome; to be left or quitted or abandoned; rejected or avoided; to be left or quitted or abandonedhi - indeed, truly; becausehiṃsā - harm (to life or property), injury, hurt; wrong (said to be of three kinds, 1. mental, as "bearing malice"; 2. verbal, as "abusive language"; 3. personal, as "acts of violence")hlāda - delight; gladness, joyhṛdaya - heart or region of the heart as the seat of feelings and sensations; mind as the seat of mental operations; the heart or centre or core or essence or best or dearest or most secret part of anythingback to topicchā - will, desire, inclination, wishiḍā - comfort, libationindriya - faculty of sense; sense; organ of senseiṣ - seek, desireiṣṭa - wished, desired; liked, beloved; chosenīśvara - the lord; the supreme soul; personal god; special self; ruler of choicesiṣyate - is said to be; known thus; is accepted as; is considered to beitara - othersitaratra - at other times, on the other handitaretara - one with the otheriti - thus; in this manner; something that has been said or thought; having so said; (it is used like a quotation mark)iva - as ifback to topja - bornjala - waterjālandhara - web holdingjanana - generating, begetting, producing, causingjanman - birthjānu - kneejapa - repetitionjaṭā - arrangement of the Vedic text (still more artificial than the krama , each pair of words being repeated thrice and one repetition being in inverted order)jāti - existencejavitva - fleetnessjaya - mastery; conquest, victory, triumph, winningjāyante - are bornjijñāsā - desire of knowing; investigation; examinationjīva - living, existing, alive; causing to live, vivifyingjīvana - vivifying, giving life, enlivening; a living being; lifejīvātman - the individual soul enshrined in the human body; that spiritual essence which renders bodies susceptible of motion or sensationjivhā - the tonguejña - knowingjñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledgejñāni - one who knowsjñāta - knownjñātṛtva - knowingnessjñeya - to be knownjugupsā - disdainjvalana - glowjyotiśmant - luminescencejyotis - lightback to topkaivalya - independence, freedom, solitude, separateness, abstraction, not connected with anything else; uncompounded, unmingledkala - to count; beats; partskāla - time, a period of time; season, the proper time or season forkali - strife, discord, quarrel, contention; last of the cycle of four ageskam - to love, to long forkāma - desire, longingkanda - bulbkaṇṭaka - thornskaṇṭha - throatkapālabhāti - skull shiningkapha - phlegm principlekapila - name/s of ancient sage/skapota - dove, pigeonkāra - making, doing, working, a maker, doerkaraṇa - making, effectingkāraṇa - reasons, causekaraṇī - form, aspectkārikā - concise statement of doctrines in versekārita - brought aboutkāritva - quality of activitykarman - act, action, performance; work, labour, activity; any religious act or rite; organ of sensekarṇa - the earkarta - separation, distinctionkartṛtva - Being agent; the state of being the performer or author of anything;karuṇā - compassion, pitykārya - to be made or done or practised or performed, practicable, feasiblekathaṃtā - whereforekauśala - skilfulness, cleverness, experiencekāya - the bodykevala - alone, only, merely, solely, excluding otherskhyāti - recognition; perception, knowledgekiṃ - howkleśa - afflictions; distress; anguishkliś - to be afflicted; to torment; to distresskliṣṭa - afflicted, tormented, distressedkoṇa - corner; anglekṛ - to do, to makekram - to stride; to walk; to step; to go, to cross; to leap; to ascendkrama - sequence; order; series; regular arrangement; succession; progressing step by step; in regular course; gradually, by degreeskriyā - activity; bodily activity; medical treatment or practicekrodha - angerkṛta - done; made; accomplished; performedkṛti - to do, to makekrudh - to be angrykṣam - endure; to be patient or composedkṣamā - forgivenesskṣaṇa - moment, any instantaneous point of time, instant, twinkling of an eye; a moment regarded as a measure of timekṣaya - diminish, wasting or wearing awaykṣema - to bear patiently, endure, put up with; giving rest or ease or securitykśetra - the fieldkṣetrika - like a farmerkṣīṇa - reducedkṣipta - distracted; unsteady; unable to concentratekṣīyate - dissolveskṣudh - hungerkukkuṭa - a wild cockkumbhaka - retentionkuṇḍalinī - annulate; circular; coiled onekūpa - wellkūrma - tortoisekurvanti - they do; they perform; they makeback to toplābha - attainedlāghava - lightnesslaghu - lightnesslakṣaṇa - characteristic, attribute; a symptom or indication of diseaselaṅghana - lighteninglāvaṇya - gracelaya - absorbedliṅga - manifest, sign, genderlobha - greedback to top - to measure; to weigh; to compare in sizemada - pride, arrogance, presumption, conceit of or aboutmadhya - moderateness; middle, central, being in the middle or centre; Intervening, intermediate; standing between two, impartial, neutralmadhyamā - middling, intermediatemahā - greatmahāmudrā - great sealmahānārāyaṇa - great supreme beingmahat - great principle; intellectual principlemahattva - greatestmahāvākya - a principal sentence; great propositionmaitrī - friendliness, good willmakaranda - nectarmālā - a string of beadsmala - dust; dirtmama - my; minemamakāra - interesting one's self about anythingman - to think, to supposemanana - thoughtfulmanas - mind; that which objects of sense affectmaṇḍala - circle, orbmaṅgala - anything auspicious e.g. a good omen, a prayer, benediction, auspicious ornament or amulet; a festival or any solemn ceremony on important occasionsmaṇi - gemmaṇipūra - jewel citymanomaya - consisting of mindmantra - sacred formulamanu - legendary author of an important law code; man; first manmaraṇa - the act of dying, deathmārga - seeking, search; way to or through; road, path; the track of a wild animalmarman - vulnerable pointmerudaṇḍa - the spinemata - a thought, idea, opinion, view, sentimentmātrā - being nothing but, simply or merely; only; measure, quantity, sum, size, durationmatsara - selfishness; envy, jealousy; hostilitymātsarya - envy, jealousymatsya - fishmāyā - illusionmaya - consisting of; aspectmayūra - a peacockmegha - cloud pouringmīmāṃsā - investigation of the proper interpretation of the Vedic textsmithuna - paired, forming a pairmithyā - falsely, deceitfully, untruly; incorrectly, wrongly, improperlymoha - delusion; error; darkness or delusion of mind; to say anything that leads to error, to fall into errormokṣa - liberation, release from worldly existence or transmigration, transcendence, final or eternal emancipationmṛdu - mildnessmṛgi - deermṛtyu - death, dyingmūḍha - stupefied; bewildered; perplexed;muditā - gladness; rejoicing in, delighted; joyfulmudrā - sealmukha - head: face; mouthmukti - setting or becoming free, release, liberation, deliverance from; final liberation or emancipation, final beatitudemūla - rootmūlādhāra - root supportmūrdha - crown of the headback to topna - no; not; nor, neithernabha - the skynābhi - navelnabho - the skynādānusandhāna - Following the inner soundnāḍī - channelnairantarya - without interruptionnāma - nameNamaskāra - the exclamation "namas" as in bow, obeisance, adoration, homage; respectful greetingsnānātva - difference, variety, manifoldnessnārāyaṇa - supreme being in the qualified non-dualism conventionnaṣṭa - disappearednaulī - to churnnava - ninenāva - boat, shipnetī - the drawing of a thread through the nose and mouthnibandhanīn - bindingnididhyāsana - profound and repeated contemplation (rational and cognitive process on the mahāvākya)nidrā - deep sleep; slumber; sleepiness; slothnimitta - instrumental cause; a cause that concurs in, or is elevated to, the production of something more noble than itselfnimna - inclined towardsnirālamba - self-supported; independentniratiśaya - not surpassed; not rivallednirbhāsa - shining forth; appearancenirbīja - without seednirdiṣṭa - pointed out, shown, indicated, declared, announced, foretold, enjoined; ordered, meant or determined for, appointed tonirgrāhya - permanently graspednirguṇa - without attributes, qualitiesnirmāṇa - creatednirodha - to contain, enclose; cover; confine, restrain; quell, surpress; quiescenirupa - non-formingnirvicārā - refined subtle reflectionnirvitarka - refined gross deliberationniṣṭhā - firmness, steadiness, skill in, familiarity with, certain knowledge ofnitya - eternal; constantly dwelling or engaged innityatvā - eternalitynivṛtti - cessationniyama - observances; restraint of the mind; a rule or precept; obligation; restraining, checking, holding backnyāsa - placingnyāya - syllogistic argumentback to topojas - vital essence; bodily vitality; vigour;om - mystical symbol, sacred exclamationoṣadhi - blessed herbs, medicinal herbsback to toppa - guarding, protecting; rulingpac - cook, boil, bake; digest; ripen, maturepada - a word or an inflected word or the stem of a noun; a portion of a verse, quarter or line of a stanzapāda - section; a quarter, a fourth part; foot, leg; on foot; the act of locomotionpādāñguṣṭha - big toepadma - lotuspadmāsana - posture in religious meditation; a kind of coituspañca - fivepañcaka - consisting of 5, relating to 5, made of 5pañcataya - fivefoldpaṅgu - of those elements of the body which are themselves without motion; lame, halt, crippled in the legspāṇi - holding in the hand; the act of graspingpaṅka - mudpanthān - pathpāpa - what brings one down; downfall; inauspicious; misfortune, ill-luck, trouble, mischief, harmpāpaka - bad, evilpara - higher, otherparama - highest, mostparamparā - from “one to another”; an uninterrupted row or series, order, succession, continuationparatantra - dependent on or subject to another, obedientpari - round, around, about, round about; fully, abundantly, richly; fully, abundantly, richly; beyond, more thanparidṛṣṭa - seen to beparigraha - grasping all around; amassing; possessiveness; covetousnessparikrama - roaming about, circumambulating, walking through, pervading; following the course of a river down from its source to its mouthparīkṣā - inspection, investigation, examinationpariṇāma - transformationparipāka - digestion; completely cooked; cooked on all sidespariśuddhi - thoroughly purify, complete purification or justification, acquittalparitāpa - distress, pain, agony, grief, sorrow; glow, scorching, heatparivṛtti - turning, revolutionpārśva - side, flankparvan - phaseparyavasāna - ultimate limit; terminus; conclusionpaścimatāna - west or back stretchpata - flying; fallingpatañjali - celebrated as a compiler of the yoga sūtra or as a grammarianpāṭha - methods of reciting the text of the veda (of which there are 5 primary variants)pavamāna - being purified or strained; flowing clearpāyu - act of excretion; anusphala - fruit; consequence, effect; result; retribution (good or bad), gain or loss, reward or punishment, advantage or disadvantagepiñcha - a peacock featherpiṅgalā - tawny-red colourpipāsā - thirstpīṭham - a support as in a stool, seat, chair, bench; a particular posture in sitting; the seat of a deity; an altarpitta - bile principleprabhu - master, mighty, powerfulpracāra - manifestation, appearance, coming forth, spreadingpracchardana - lengthening the exhaleprada - giving, yielding, offering, granting, bestowing, causing, effecting, uttering, speakingpradhāna - prime; chief; major; the most important or essential part; unevolved or root of matter, original source; the creative principle of naturepradīpavat - like a lamppradīpikā - special lightprādurbhāva - appearanceprāgbhāra - propensityprajñā - knowing; insightprakaraṇa - treatment; discussion; explanation; subject, topic, matterprakāśa - clearness, brightness, splendour, lustre, light; visible, shining, brightprakopa - effervescence, excitement, raging (of diseases, war &c); provocation, aggravationprakṛti - the original producer of the material world; nature or process of matter; nature, character, constitution, temper, dispositionpramāda - carelessness, negligence; intoxicationpramāṇa - right perception, a correct notion; a means of acquiring; measure, scale, standardprameya - to be ascertained or proved; to be measured; the thing to be proved or the topic to be discussedprāṇa - vital force; the breath of life; breath; inward airprāṇamaya - consisting of vital forcepraṇava - sacred syllableprāṇāyāma - extending the breathpraṇidhāna - dedication; respectful conduct; attention; to place down; in front ofprānta - finalprārthanā - prayer, to request, to petitionprasāda - serenity; a propitiatory offering, the food presented to an idolprasādana - calming, soothing, cheering, gratifying; propitiatingprasaṃkhyāna - omniscienceprasaṅga - towards associationprasanna - placid, tranquilpraśānta - sereneprasārita - held forth, stretched out, expanded, spreadpraśvāsā - exhalationprasṛta - held or stretched out; extending over or toprasupta - latentprathamā - primary, initial, firstprati - with regard to; towards, in the direction of; back, in return, again; in opposition to, against, countepratibandhī - opposeprātibhā - intuitionpratikriyā - opposite activity, counteraction, compensationpratiloma - opposite grainpratiniyama - A separate allotmen; A general rule; a strict rule as to applying an example to particular persons or things onlypratipakṣa - opposite sidepratipatti - ascertainmentpratiprasava - going back to their originpratiṣedha - counteractingpratiṣṭha - establishedpratīti - conviction, settled beliefpratiyogīn - correspondingpratyāhāra - withdrawal from the sensespratyak - turning inwardspratyakṣa - through the sensespratyaya - psychic activity; cause; conception, assumption, notion, idea;prauḍha - strong; bold, proud, audacious; proficientpravarta - engaging in, undertakingpravibhāga - separationpravṛt - to come forth, issue, originate, arise, be produced, result, occur, happen, take placepravṛtti - finer cognition; special cognitionprayatna - continued effortprayoga - connectionprayojaka - initiating, occasioning, causing, effecting, leading to, inciting, stimulating, deputingprīti - any pleasurable sensation, pleasure, joy, gladness, satisfactionpṛthvī - earth elementpūjā - honour, worship, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to superiors or adoration of the godspumān - spirit; person; manpunar - againpuṇya - propitious; virtuous; meritoriouspūraka - inhalepūrṇa - filled, full, filled with, full ofpūrṇimā - the night or day of full moonpurohita - front placedpuruṣa - animating principle, self, consciousness, spirit; a person, man, a human being; peoplepuruṣottama - supreme spiritpūrva - eastward, to the east of; in front, before; former, prior, preceding, previous to, earlier thanpūrvatāna - east facing front stretchback to toprāga - colour; attraction; passion, delight in; vehement desire of; attachment; a musical note, harmony, melodyrahasya - secretrāja - a king, sovereign, chief or best of its kindrajas - excitingrakṣaṇa - the act of guarding, watching, protecting, preservationrakta - blood; coloured; redrasa - disposition; flavour; any object of taste; a tasterasana - sense of tasting; tongueratna - jewelsrātri - night; the darkness or stillness of nightrecaka - exhaleroga - disease, infirmity, sicknessrogya - related to or connected with disease, producing sickness, unwholesomeṛta - true; truly, sincerely; truth in general, righteousness; right, duly, properly; fit, aptṛta - truth; principle of natural order, cosmic orderrūḍha - springing up; grown, produced fromrūpa - any outward appearance or phenomenon or colour; form, shape, figure; aggregaterūpatvā - characterrūta - cry ofback to topsa - this; with, together or along withśabdādi - the objects of the senses beginning with soundśabdānuśāsana - word-instruction or explanation; science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentencesabīja - with seedsadā - alwayssādhaka - efficient, someone who follows a particular sādhanasādhana - means to accomplish; leading straight to a goal; guiding well; furtheringsādhāraṇatvā - commonsādharmya - community or equality of duty or office or properties, sameness or identity of nature, likeness or homogeneousness withsaguṇa - with attributes, qualitiessaha - accompanysahabhuva - accompanyingsahakāra - assistance; acting withsahasrāra - thousand-spoked; a kind of cavity said to be found in the top of the head and to resemble a lotus reversedsahavāsa - dwelling togethersakriya - having action, active, mutable, movable, migratorysākṣāt - directly seeingsākṣitva - the office of any legal witness, evidence, testimony, attestationśakta - able, competent for, equal to, capable ofśakya - able, possible, practicable, capable of being,sālamba - having anything as a support; with supportsālambana - supporting; belonging to or connected withsalilavat - like watersamā - equal, constant; fair, impartial towards; like to or identical with; to fix or settle firmlysamādhi - putting together; communion; combining; integrationsamāhita - one who has collected his thoughts, devout, steadfast, firmsāman - force or power of articulation; the faculty of uttering soundssamāna - digestive air, middle breath; alike, similar, equalsamanvayāt - regular succession or order, connected sequence or consequence, conjunction, mutual or immediate connection; in consequence ofsāmānya - general, generic, not specific, alike, similarsamāpatti - coming together, unitysamāpti - conclusionsamatvam - equanimitysamavṛtti - equal movementsamaya - circumstances; appointed or proper time; agreement; regulatesaṃbandha - connection, binding or joining together, close union or associationsaṃbhava - production, springing up, arising, existence; cause, reason, occasionsaṃbodha - understandingsaṃgṛhītatvā - connection; held togethersaṃhananatvā - robustnesssaṃhāra - destruction; contraction, drawing in; conclusionsaṃhatya - having combinedsaṃhitā - collectionsāmīpya - neighbourhood, nearness, proximitysaṃjñā - acknowledgmentsaṃkalpa - will, volition, desire, purpose, definite intention or determination or decision or wish forsaṃkara - completely mixedsāṃkhya - enumeration; a numbersaṃkīrṇā - interspersed, intermixedsaṃkīrtana - संकीर्तनsaṃmoha - bewilderment; stupefaction; insensibility, unconsciousness; folly, illusion of mindsaṃnidhi - in the presencesaṃnyāsa - renunciation; a life stagesaṃpat - perfection, destinysaṃpradāya - convention; tradition, established doctrine transmitted from one teacher to another, traditional belief or usagesaṃprajñāta - total knowingsaṃprayoga - total joining togethersaṃsāra - going or wandering through, passing through a succession of statessaṃśaya - doubtsaṃskāra - tendencies, psychological imprint, mental impression, habitual potency; making ready, preparation; a sacred or sanctifying ceremonysaṃtoṣa - satisfaction; contentedness withsamudaya - coming together, union, junction, combination, collection, assemblage, multitude, aggregation, aggregatesaṃvedana - to fully experience; completely knowingsaṃvega - ardour; excitementsaṃvid - an understandingsāmya - equalsaṃyama - complete restraintsaṃyoga - conjunctionsaṅga - associationsaṅghāta - assemblage, multitude, heap, quantity; association, combinationsaṃskṛta - ancient indic languagesaṃtāna - coherence, connection, transitionsapta - sevensaptadhā - sevenfoldsarga - emission or creation of matter, primary creation, creation of the world; a created being, creature; letting go, discharging, voidingsarūpa - having the same shape or form, uniform, similar, like, resemblingsārūpya - conformity with, sameness or similarity of form, identity of appearance, resemblance, likenesssarva - allsarvāṅgāsana - all parts posturesarvathā - in every way, at all timessat - real, true, rightsati - beingsatkāra - kind treatment, honour, favour, reverence; care, attention, consideration of or regard for a thingsatkārya - that which is effected, the necessary existence of an effect; deserving of honour or hospitalitysattva - clarity; the quality of puritysatya - truthful; honesty; sincere; genuine; actualsaumanasya - open-mindednesssāvayava - having parts, composed of partssavicārā - unrefined subtle reflectionsavitarkā - unrefined gross deliberationśabda - words, sound, languageśaithilya - decrease; looseness; relaxationśakti - power, energy; ability, capability; strength; might, effort;śamana - palliating, allayingśānta - quiescentśānti - peaceśarīra - any solid body; bodily frame; one's bodyṣaṣ - sixśāsana - teachingsśāstra - precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatiseśauca - cleanlinessśava - corpse, dead bodyśavāsana - corpse poseśeṣa - remainderśikṣaṇa - teaching, instruction in; the act of learning, acquiring knowledgeśīla - natureśiṣya - pupil, discipleśītalī - coolingśloka - type of verse metreśodhana - cleansing, refining, purifyingśraddhā - having faith, believing in, trusting, faithful, having confidenceśrāvaṇa - hearingśravika - heard spiritual teachingsśrī - blessedśrotra - sense of hearing; earśruta - oral transmissionśuci - pureśuddha - pure, cleansed, cleared, clean, clear, free fromśūnya - emptyśvāsa - inhalationśī - sleepingsiddha - accomplished one; admitted to be true or right, established, settled, provedsiddhi - accomplishment, performance, fulfilment, attainment, successśīrṣa - the head; upper part, tip, topśīrṣāsana - the head posturesītkārī - smaya - conceitsmṛti - remembrance; memory; mindfulness; the whole body of sacred tradition or what is remembered by human teachers and constantly revisedṣoḍaśaka - consisting of sixteen, aggregate of sixteensoma - moon; plant; an extract; a godsparśa - touch; any quality which is perceptible by touching any objectśreyas - better state, better fortune or condition; auspicious; preferable; rather thansṛṣṭi - creationśruti - hearing , listening; the ear, organ or power of hearing; that which is heard or perceived with the ear; sacred eternal sounds or words as heard by sages, differing from smṛti or what is only remembered and handed down in writing by authorsstambha - suspensionsteya - practice of stealing; something that can be stolenstha - abidingsthairya - steadfastness, steadinesssthāna - site, place; being fixed or stationarysthānin - high positionstheya - to be stationed or fixed or settled; to be stayed or remained in; to be fixed onsthira - steady, firm, not wavering or totteringsthiti - staying or remaining or being in any state or condition; maintenance of life;sthūla - gross, tangible, material; large, thick, stout, massive, bulky, big, hugestotra - ode, eulogy, hymn of praisestyāna - dullnesssu - good, excellent, right, virtuousśuddhi - cleansing; purification; purity; holiness; freedom from defilement; purificatory ritesukha - pleasure; happiness; agreeable; ease; comfortable; pleasantsukṛta - a good or righteous deed, meritorious act, virtue, moral merit; well done or made or formed or executedsūkṣma - subtle; atomic; intangiblesūkta - well or properly said or recited; song of praise; a Vedic hymnsupta - lain down, supinesūrya - sunsuṣumnā - arterysūtra - threadsva - own; one's selfsvabhāva - innate or inherent disposition; own condition or state of beingsvadharma - own highest dutysvādhiṣṭhāna - ones own placesvādhyāya - to study; to read; sacred recitation; study of the selfsvāmin - an owner, proprietor, master, lord or owner ofśvan - dog, houndsvapna - dreaming, a dreamsvara - tone, accent or musical note in recitationsvarita - caused to sound, sounded, having an accent, accentuatedsvarūpa - own charactersvastha - self abidingsvatantra - self-dependence, independence, self-willsyãt - could beback to toptadā - then, from that time forward, at any time whentaḍāka - a tank, pooltaijasa - originating from or consisting of lighttaittirīya - a partridge; pupils of tittiritamas - obscuring; mental darkness, ignorance, illusion, error; deprived of the eye's light or sight; darkness, gloomtāmasa - appertaining to or affected by the quality tamas; ignorant, various; darknesstanmātra - thatness, only that; a rudimentary or subtle element;tantra - a loom; depending on, framework; doctrine, rule, theory; a class of works teaching magical and mystical formulariestanū - attenuating, thinning, weakeningtap - to heat, to burn; to be hot; to suffer paintāpa - craving; heat; afflictiontapas - to heat; religious austerity; self-discipline; pain, sufferingtārā - startāraka - liberatingtārāvalī - a multitude of starstark - to reflect, think of, recollect, have in one's mindtāsām - of thesetasmāt - from that, on that account, thereforetasmin - in thistasya - itstat - that, thistatas - hence, from thattathā - so, like, after that manner.tatra - theretattva - principle; thatnesstayoḥ - of bothte - thesetejas - glow; glare; splendour; brilliance; light elementtena - in that manner, thustīvra - intensetrāṭakam - fixing the eyes on an objecttraya - the threetri - threetrividha - three foldtṛṣ - to be thirsty, to wishtṛṣṇā - thirsttu - moreovertūla - cottontulya - samenesstuṣ - be content, be satisfied or pleased with any one;tuṣṭi - satisfaction, contentmenttvak - sense of touching; skin; cinnamon;tvam - thoutyāga - forsaken; abandonment, desertion; quitting; giving up, sacrifice, renunciationtyaktvā - having left; having abandonedback to topubhaya - bothucyate - be spoken or said, or told, or utteredudāna - upward airudāra - aroused; exciting, effecting; active, energetic; rising fog or vapourudāsīna - sitting apart, indifferent, free from affection; a stranger, neutral; one who is neither friend nor foeudātta - acute accent, high pitch; lifted upraised, elevated; the acute accent, a high or sharp toneudaya - arising; going up, rising; swelling up; coming forth, becoming visible, appearance, developmentuḍḍīyāna - flying upudita - uprisenudvega - trembling, waving, shaking; agitation, anxiety; regret, fear, distressujjāyī - upwards victoryukrānti - going aboveukta - it is saidunmanas - excited or disturbed in mind, perplexedupa - near toupādāna - material cause; material of any kindupadeśa - instruction, teachingupalabdhi - apprehensionupanimantraṇa - invitationupaniṣat - to sit down near to; esoteric doctrine; a class of philosophical writingsuparāga - the act of dyeing or colouring; a variation in the musical modeuparakta - dyed, coloured, coloured red; heated, inflamedupāsana - stay near, worshipupasarga - impediments; misfortune, trouble, a natural phenomenon; a disease superinduced on another; additionupaṣṭambhaka - strengthening; stimulation; excitingupastha - generative organ, the act of procreationupasthāna - appearupaviṣṭa - seated, sittingupāya - approach, coming near; that by which one reaches one's aim, a means, way, stratagem, craftupekṣā - disinterest, overlooking, disregard, indifferenceūrdhva - upwards, towards the upper part; aloof, aboveūrmi - a wave, billow; 'the waves of existence'utkaṭa - intenseutpannā - arisesutsarga - pouring out, pouring forth, emission, dejection, excretion, voiding by stooluttama - most elevated, principal; uppermost, highest, chief; best, excellentuttāna - stretched out; spread oututtara - other; later, following, subsequent, latter, concluding, posteriorutthita - extended; rising (from a seat), stand; extended; elevatedback to top - orvāc - the act of speaking; utter a soundvācaka - expression; verbal , expressed by words; speaking, saying, telling anythingvacana - the act of speaking , utterance; statement, declarationvāda - a thesis, proposition, argument, doctrine; speaking, saying; causing to sound, playingvadanti - they sayvāhī - continuousvāhitā - flowvaikharī - the faculty of speech or the divinity presiding over it; speech in the fourth of its four stages from the first stirring of the air or breath, that utterance of sounds or words which is complete as consisting of full and intelligible sentencesvaikṛta - modified, derivative, secondary; undergoing change, subject to modificationvaira - animosityvairāgya - dispassion, disinclination, detachment, non-attachment; indifference to worldly objects and to lifevaiśāradya - maturationvaiśvarūpya - manifoldness, multiplicity, diversityvajra - adamantinevākya - वाक्यvama - leftvanaprastha - retiring into a forest; living the life of an anchorite; a life stagevaraṇa - surroundingvaraṇaka - covering, covering over, concealingvarṇa - type; order; colour; classvārtā - smellingvāsanā - latent impressions; the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind; the act of perfumingvaśīkāra - masteryvastu - any really existing or abiding substance or essence, thing, objectvaśyatā - controlvat - an affix added to words to imply likeness or resemblance, and generally translatable by ‘as’, ‘like’vāta - wind principlevaya - agevāyava - relating or belonging to the wind or airvāyu - wind; air elementveda - sacred lorevedana - touch, sensation, feeling; perception, knowledgevedāṅga - limbs of the Vedavedanīya - experiencedvedānta - conclusion of the sacred lorevega - outbreak, outburst, excitement, agitationvibhāga - distinctionvibhakta - separatevibhūti - special manifestation; super-natural; extra-ordinaryvibudha - wise or learned man, teacher; destitute of learned menvicāra - subtle or special reflectionviccheda - dividingvicchinna - inconsistentvid - to know, understand, perceive, be conscious of, have a correct notion ofvideha - discarnate, without bodyvidhāraṇā - retaining; detainingvidvāṃs - wise personvidyā - any knowledge whether true or false; knowledge of the soul or spiritual knowledge; true knowledgevihāra - recreation; going about for pleasure or exercise, roaming, strolling; taking out for a walk or for airingviharaṇa - stepping out; moving to and fro, brandishing;vihita - destined or meant for; prescribed, decreed, enjoinedvijñāna - special knowing, comprehensionvijñānamaya - consisting of special knowingvikalpa - false notion, fancy, imaginationvikāra - change of form or nature, alteration or deviation from any natural state, change of bodily or mental condition (esp. for the worse); disease; sickness; hurt; perturbation; emotion; agitationvikaraṇa - without instrumentsvikṛti - changed in nature; changed condition; any production; formation, growth, developmentvikṣepa - distraction, inattention, confusion, perplexity; scattering, dispersion; moving about, to and frovikṣipta - occasionally steady; able to withdraw itself from painful objectsvilamba - slownessviloma - against the grainvimarśana - discussing; investigation; examinationvinā - withoutviniyoga - employment, use, applicationvinyāsa - special placing; arrangement, disposition, order; putting together, connectingvipāka - results; effect, result, consequence; ripening, maturing; digestion; conversion of food into a state for assimilationviparīta - reversed , invertedviparyasta - turned over, reversed, opposite, contrary; interchanged, invertedviparyaya - wrong perception, misapprehension, error, mistake; intrinsic misconception; reversed, inverted, perverse, contrary toviprakṛṣṭa - distantvīra - a herovīrabhadra - auspicious hero; a warriorvirāga - indifference to external things or worldly objects; passionless, without feeling, dispassionate, excitement, irritation; indifferent; aversion, dislike or indifference to; change or loss of colourvirāma - cessation, to come to an end, restvirodhā - opposingvirūpa - different from; different in form but the same in meaningvirūpa - many-coloured, variegated, multiform, manifold, variousvīrya - vigourviṣāda - despairviṣamavṛtti - unequal movementviṣayavant - as an objectviśeṣa - distinction, difference between; characteristic difference, peculiar mark, special property, speciality, peculiarityviṣaya - an object; any object of affection or concern or attentionviśiṣṭādvaita - qualified non-dualismviśokā - free from sorrowviśuddhi - special purityviśva - universalvīta - free from; smoothvitarka - gross deliberation; negative deliberationvitṛṣṇasya - absence of thirstviveka - discrimination, discernment; the faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties; the power of separating the invisible Spirit from the visible world (or spirit from matter); truth from untruthvivekin - discernerviyoga - unyoking, separationvrajet - can achievevrata - vowvṛkṣa - tree; the trunk of a treevṛścika - scorpionvṛt - to move or go on, get along, advance, proceed; take place, occur, be performed, come offvṛtti - fluctuation; modification; turning; set in motion, course of action, behaviour, movement; activity, function; professionvṛtya - to be surrounded or encompassed; to be abided or stayed or remainedvyādhi - disorder, disease, ailmentvyākhyā - explanation, exposition, gloss, commentaryvyākhyātā - explainedvyakta - caused to appear, manifested, apparent, visible, evidentvyāna - circulatory airvyāsa - arranger, compiler, codifiervyavahita - concealedvyūha - arrangement, placing apart, distribution; orderly arrangement of the parts of a whole;vyutthāna - turned outward; swerving from the right course; rising upvyutthita - strongly excited or agitated; swerving from dutyback to topyajña - act of worship or devotion; offering, oblation, sacrificeyājñavalkya - an eponymous Vedic sageyama - restraintsyathā - according asyatna - effortyatra - where, to which place; journeyyatta - attended to, guided; engaged in, intent upon, prepared for, ready to; endeavoured, strivenyoga - the act of yokingyogyatva - capabilityyogin - a follower of the yoga systemyogyatā - fitness, ability, capability, suitableness, proprietyyuga - an age of the world; long mundane period of yearsyugapad - together, at the same time, simultaneouslyyuj - to yoke, join, fasten, harness; to unite, connect, add, bring togetheryukta - connected; skilful; made use ofyukti - union, junction, connection, combinationback to top