Yoga Sūtra Chapter Four verse 18

सदाज्ञाताः चित्तव्र्त्तयः तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात् ॥१८॥

sadā jñātāḥ citta-vṛttayaḥ tat-prabhoḥ puruṣasya-apariṇāmitvāt ||18||

The fluctuations of the psyche always known
due to the non-transformation of the master,
that animating principle.

sadā - alwaysjñāta - known, ascertained, comprehended, perceived, understoodcitta - psyche (the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious); mind; heartvṛtti - fluctuation; modification; turning; set in motion, course of action, behaviour, movement; activity, function; profession, mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviourtat - that, thisprabhu - to rule, control, have power over, be master of, mighty, powerful; to profit, avail, be of use topuruṣa - animating principle, self, consciousness, spirit; a person, man, a human being; peopleapariṇāma - unchangeableness; non-transformative

Commentaries and Reflections

Commentary by T Krishnamacharya:

Commentary by TKV Desikachar:

Mind is not the highest point in Yoga.”

“The mind depends on Cit.
It is like a stone,
it depends on Ātman or Cit to give it life.”

Commentary by S Ramaswami:

“Here a statement is given to indicate that when there is an experience these is one entity which does not change and one entity which undergoes change.
It is observed because of the unchanging principle. One Citta appears to have consciousness by choice but it undergoes change; it likes, it dislikes and is affected accordingly.
There should be a non-changing principle, to observe the changing principle.
No explanation of Puruṣa contrary to this can be given.”

Commentary by Paul Harvey:

“The witness cannot be witnessed.”

“‘What’ is it that identifies
that we misidentify?”

“We observe what we experience
through the eye of the Indriya
The eye of the Indriya observes
through the I of the Manas
The I of the Manas observes
through the I of the Ahaṃkāra
The I of the Ahaṃkāra observes
through the I of the Buddhi
The I of the Buddhi observes
from the eye of the Puruṣa.”

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