Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 17

द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥१७॥

draṣṭṛ-dṛśyayoḥ saṃyogaḥ heya-hetuḥ ||17||

The cause of what must be overcome is
the conjunction of the seer and the seen.

draṣṭṛ - seer; one who sees, one who sees welldṛśya - the seen; to be seen, visiblesaṃyoga - conjunctionheya - overcome; to be left or quitted or abandoned; rejected or avoided; to be left or quitted or abandonedhetu - cause, cause of; motive; reason for

Commentaries and Reflections

Commentary by T Krishnamacharya:

“What causes Duḥkha?
In the school of Sāṃkhya it arises from within, or from external influences,
or from extraordinary phenomena such as drought, storm, earthquake.
However, the experience of Duḥkha is not the same for everyone.
The same circumstance may not bring Duḥkha in erveryone.
Hence the cause of Duḥkha is associationAssociation implies “two”,
that which is “associated to” and that which is the “cause of association.”
In Yoga they are known as Draṣṭṛ and Dṛśya;
that which perceives and that which is perceived.
The next three Sūtra describe them.
How these two get associated is a subject matter of great debate.
Suffice it to say that this mystery is the Lord’s will.”

Commentary by Paul Harvey:

“We experience the world via the conjunction
of the ‘eye’ of the Cit with the ‘I’ of the Citta.”

“Through Avidyā we see two as if one.
Through Vidyā we know two is as if one.
Hence before there can be a state of Yoga,
there needs to be a process of Viyoga.”