Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 15

परिणाम ताप संस्कार दुःखैः गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः ॥१५॥

pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhaiḥ guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāt-ca duḥkham-eva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ ||15||

Indeed for the discriminating person all is suffering,
due to the suffering from transformation, craving and tendencies;
and the opposing fluctuations in the activities of the attributes of nature.

pariṇāma - transformation into; change, alteration, development, evolutiontāpa - craving; heat; afflictionsaṃskāra - tendencies, psychological imprint, mental impression, habitual potency; making sacred, hallowing, consecration, making ready, preparation; a sacred or sanctifying ceremonyduḥkha - suffering, pain, sorrowful, uneasiness, trouble, difficultyguṇa - an ingredient or constituent or attribute of nature; a property or characteristic of all created things; qualities; a quality, peculiarity, attribute or property; the peculiar properties of the lettersvṛtti - fluctuation; modification; turning; set in motion, course of action, behaviour, movement; activity, function; profession, mode of life or conduct, course of action, behaviourvirodha - opposing; opposition, hostility, quarrel, strife between; conflict with; contradiction, contrariety;ca - andeva - indeed, truly, really; thus; so, just so, exactly sosarva - whole, entire, all, every one; altogether, wholly, completely, in all parts, everywherevivekin - discerner

Commentaries and Reflections

Commentary by T Krishnamacharya:

“This Sūtra describes the origin of Duḥkha.
Duḥkha arises because of change, greed and conditioning.
Besides the Guṇa cause inherent changes unexpectedly.
This disturbs balance and Duḥkha follows.”

“Good habits can be as enslaving as bad ones
and can also lead to Duḥkha.”

Commentary by TKV Desikachar:

Duḥkha is the expression of a problem.
Duḥkha is an emotion, it could be an illusion.”

Suffering is basically either the result of the absence of something that we want, or the presence of something that we don’t want.”

“We are always experiencing Duḥkha
even though some of us might not be seeking clarity.”

“Recognising AND accepting one’s Duḥkham is the first Prajñā.
Once you have accepted this you are free to find out where it is coming from.”

Commentary by Paul Harvey:

“There are some who are ruled by how they perceive the world as treating them.
There are others who reflect on how they are treating the world.”

“We see ourselves within a mirror
reflecting the opposing fluctuations
of Rajas Guṇa and Tamas Guṇa.”