Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 8
विपर्ययः मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥
viparyayaḥ mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa-pratiṣṭham ||8||
Wrong perception is false knowledge not established in form.viparyaya - wrong perception, misapprehension, error, mistake; intrinsic misconception; reversed, inverted, perverse, contrary tomithyā - falsely, deceitfully, untruly; incorrectly, wrongly, improperlyjñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledgeatat - not thatrūpa - any outward appearance or phenomenon or colour; form, shape, figure; aggregatepratiṣṭha - established
Commentaries and Reflections
Commentary by T Krishnamacharya:
“Even when our understanding is consistent with our perception or repeated experience, it does not necessarily indicate a fact.
For instance, if we assume that a person is a woman simply because that person is dressed in a woman’s clothes, this is called Viparyaya or mental activity that is based on something other than fact.
Viparyaya, then, is comprehension based on a perceived characteristic in the observer, which leads to false assumptions.”
“A particular Dharma is not there,
but somewhere we feel it is there.”
Commentary by Paul Harvey:
“Wrong perception is false knowledge that has no basis.”
“Viparyaya is merely an opinion,
convincing in its rightness to exist.
A flight of fancy, posing, as if a truth.”
“Viparyaya is seeing what we want to see,
or not seeing what we need to see.”