Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 8
विपर्ययः मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥
viparyayaḥ mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa-pratiṣṭham ||8||
Wrong perception is false knowledge not established in form.viparyaya - wrong perceptionmithyā - falsely, deceitfully, untruly; incorrectly, wrongly, improperlyjñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledgeatat - not thatrūpa - any outward appearance or phenomenon or colour; form, shape, figure; aggregatepratiṣṭha - established
Commentaries and ReflectionsT Krishnamacharya:
“Even when our understanding is consistent with our perception or repeated experience, it does not necessarily indicate a fact.
For instance, if we assume that a person is a woman simply because that person is dressed in a woman’s clothes, this is called Viparyaya or mental activity that is based on something other than fact.
Viparyaya, then, is comprehension based on a perceived characteristic in the observer, which leads to false assumptions.”
“A particular Dharma is not there,
but somewhere we feel it is there.”
“Wrong perception is false knowledge that has no basis.”
“Viparyaya is seeing what we want to see.
or not seeing what we need to see.”