Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 8
विपर्ययः मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥
viparyayaḥ mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa-pratiṣṭham ||8||
Wrong perception is false knowledge not established in form.viparyaya - wrong perceptionmithyā - falsely, deceitfully, untruly; incorrectly, wrongly, improperlyjñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledgeatat - not thatrūpa - formpratiṣṭha - established
Commentaries and ReflectionsT Krishnamacharya:
“Even when our understanding is consistent with our perception or repeated experience,
it does not necessarily indicate a fact.
if we assume that a person is a woman simply because that person is dressed in a woman’s clothes,
this is called Viparyaya or mental activity that is based on something other than fact.
Viparyaya, then, is comprehension based on a perceived characteristic in the observer,
which leads to false assumptions.”
Wrong perception is false knowledge that has no basis.