Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 8

विपर्ययः मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥

viparyayaḥ mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa-pratiṣṭham ||8||

Wrong perception is false knowledge not established in form.

viparyaya - wrong perceptionmithyā - falsely, deceitfully, untruly; incorrectly, wrongly, improperlyjñāna - knowing; knowledge; higher knowledgeatat - not thatrūpa - formpratiṣṭha - established

Commentaries and Reflections

T Krishnamacharya:

“Even when our understanding is consistent with our perception or repeated experience,
it does not necessarily indicate a fact.
For instance,
if we assume that a person is a woman simply because that person is dressed in a woman’s clothes,
this is called Viparyaya or mental activity that is based on something other than fact.
Viparyaya, then, is comprehension based on a perceived characteristic in the observer,
which leads to false assumptions.”

Paul Harvey:

Wrong perception is false knowledge that has no basis.

Inspirational Quote

“If you do not tell the truth about yourself you cannot tell it about other people....” Virginia Woolfe