Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 7
प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि ॥७॥
pratyakṣa-anumāna-āgamāḥ pramāṇāni ||7||
Right perception is through the senses, inference and testimony.pratyakṣa - through the sensesanumāna - inference; the act of inferring or drawing a conclusionāgama - testimony; anything handed down and fixed by traditionpramāṇa - right perception, a correct notion; a means of acquiring; measure, scale, standard
Commentaries and Reflections
Commentary by T Krishnamacharya:
“The first type of Pramāṇa, Pratyakṣa, arises from the continuous active link,
through the mind and senses, between Jīva and the object it perceives.
The second type, Anumāna, is when present perception is
based on what has been seen in other situations in the past.
For instance, when I see dark clouds, I think that it may rain.
With the third type, Āgamā, undistorted words from
a reliable source are the basis for perception.
The Veda are Pramāṇa by virtue of their source.
The sage Āpastamba proclaimed that the Veda are Pramāṇa for Dharma.”
Commentary by TKV Desikachar:
“Perception is said to be right when something happens,
where we can see the design of the mind as well as the object.”
“Pratyakṣa (through the senses) – Direct perception
In other words the object placed in front of you.
The senses help us in comprehending the object.
Anumāna (inference) – We don’t have all the information.
We have certain indications that allow us to complete the picture.
Anu – to follow.
From the part you can get the whole.
From the effect you get to the cause.
Āgamāḥ (authentic teachings) – No information directly.
Only information is from words
Some truth that has already existed.
We take the words and believe them as if we had seen it for ourselves.
For example God.”
“So how do you find out these important facts?
According to Patañjali an object which can be
understood by the mind can be perceived in
three ways, Pratyakṣa, Anumāna and Āgamāḥ.”
Commentary by Paul Harvey:
“We perceive our world
through sensory contact,
building from partial contact
and what others tell us.”
“In Sūtra 1.7 Patañjali defines Pramāṇa as having three sources.
How do we discern that all three are not, in reality, self-selective
ascertainments and thus, just all muddled variants of Anumāna?”
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