viṣayaDevanāgarī: विषय Translation: an object of sense; anything perceptible by the senses; any object of affection or concern or attention Similar words:vastu, viṣayavant, dhyeya, arthatā Related concepts:dhyāta, dhyāna
Appears inYoga Sūtra: Sāṃkhya Kārikā: Yoga Rahasya:
Chapter 1: 42
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“The first type of Pramāṇa, Pratyakṣa, arises from the continuous active link,
through the mind and senses, between Jīva and the object it perceives.
The second type, Anumāna, is when present perception is
based on what has been seen in other situations in the past.
For instance, when I see dark clouds, I think that it may rain.
With the third type, Āgamā, undistorted words from
a reliable source are the basis for perception.
The Veda are Pramāṇa by virtue of their source.
The sage Āpastamba proclaimed that the Veda are Pramāṇa for Dharma.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 7
“In Sūtra 1.10 Patañjali defines Nidrā as a
Citta Vṛtti or, a specific type of cognition, one
where Tamas is the object, to the point where
the mind’s link with external stimuli is cut off.
How do we discern between states such as
Pratyāhāra as a disengagement, or Samādhi,
where one is as if empty of one’s own character,
and what is seen as the experience of Tamo Nidrā?”
– Paul Harvey on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 10
“Anubhūta is the change that
occurs in one’s state of mind
when it is related to external objects
through the involvement of the senses.
This is also known as experience.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 11
“When this relationship becomes strong through repeated encounters,
a unique power develops in the mind which is linked to Jīva.
This power is Saṃskāra and from it arises memory or that aspect of understanding
where objects can be comprehended without being physically present.
Based on previous experiences of objects, Saṃskāra gives rise to understanding
and in order for this to happen, Jīva must be linked to the mind.
This ability to remember, known as Asaṃpramoṣa, stays with us for a very long time.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 11
“In Sūtra 1.11 Patañjali defines Smṛti as
the retention of the experience of an object.
How do we know whether Smṛti is Pramāṇa,
given the presence of Viparyaya and Vikalpa
within our parti pris shaping of an experience?”
– Paul Harvey on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 11
“In this Sūtra Patañjali states that there are two ways
to discipline the five types of mental activity.
They are Abhyāsa and Vairāgya.
Abhyāsa is practice.
Vairāgya is to disconnect or sever the link
between the Citta and external objects.
These two, Abhyāsa and Vairāgya,
always go together as a pair.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 12
“From this, the role of senses and sense objects
in causing a ground for disease becomes evident.
They are chiefly responsible for creating disturbance in the mind.
Hence the value of Vairāgya insisted as an aid to help the student.
Otherwise the whole system is sure to reach a state of chaos
because of the erratic movement of vital energy all over the body.
To put it another way, disease results from excess of contact
with objects not conducive to the individual system.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 34
“According to my teacher,
trying to calm the agitations of the mind by reflecting on external objects
is like trying to get milk from the wattles hanging from the neck of a goat.
All seekers of truth are therefore advised to focus,
instead, only on objects that are in the realm of the divine.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 35
“Pratyāhāra is not feeding the tendency of the Citta
to automatically form a positive, negative, or neutral
identification with whatever stimuli the senses present to it.
From that, we can begin to understand how their external gathering
activities stimulate our conscious and especially, unconscious choices.
From this, we can begin to understand how the impact
of this sensory knowing can lead us to travel in different directions
and trigger different levels of response, often without us being really
conscious of how deeply their input stimulates our psychic activities.
From these responses, there will be the inevitable re-actions,
again quite possibly unconscious and multilevelled,
according to our psychic history in terms of our memory,
habit patternings and deeper memory processes.
From those initial insight, we can begin to understand
and interact in how we can resist unconsciously slipping
into the trance states that can so often culminate with
the Kleśa manifesting fully in the entrancing dance of
Udārā Rāga, or Udārā Dveṣa, or Udārā Abhiniveśa,
the potent and profligate children of Avidyā.”
– Paul Harvey on Yoga Sūtra Chapter Two verse 54
“Since Dhyāna cannot occur without an object of concentration,
there must be an area where you fix your mind.
So, first you have to fix or bind your mind
on a particular place, a chosen object;
this is known as Deśa Bandha.
And second, the mind should establish
a relationship with this object which
should last, at least, for a moment.”
– TKV Desikachar on Yoga Sūtra Chapter Three verse 1
“Dhāraṇā is the process of ‘holding onto’ the object.
Dhyānā is the process of ‘linking with’ the object.
Samādhi is the process of ‘integration into’ the object.”
Paul Harvey on Yoga Sūtra Chapter 3 verses 1-3
“The state of Dhyānam is possible in a seated posture.
If a person lies down, it may induce sleep.
If a person walks and moves about,
he may be distracted by the objects around him.
This posture must be in a place
where the mind will not be distracted.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Yoga Sūtra Chapter Three verse 2
“Ekāgratā is compared to the sharp tip
of the steady flame of a Ghee Lamp
when not exposed to any wind.
In other words,
the mind should not move
anywhere else other than in the
direction fixed for Dhāraṇā.
Obviously the Viṣaya for Dhāraṇā
and Dhyānam should be the same.
The stronger the Dhāraṇā,
the steadier the Dhyānam.”
– T Krishnamacharya on Bhagavad Gītā Chapter Six verse 19
“Until the Dancer (Citta) deeply realises that
the Observer (Cit) of the Spectacle (Viṣaya) is not interested
in the drives (Avidyā) which animate the dance,
the Dancer continues to Dance.”
– Sāṃkhya Kārikā verse 59
“Dhāraṇā is the contact.
Dhyāna is the communication.
Further, when we become so involved in
an object that our mind completely merges with it,
that is called Samādhi.”
– TKV Desikachar Religiousness in Yoga Chapter Eleven Page 155
“One’s own actions can develop or make one Guṇa prominent.
Thus we can plan or practice Āsana or Prāṇāyāma to promote one Guṇa.
The practice of Yoga can influence the Guṇa.
the room where you practice can affect the Guṇa
by photographs, colour of paint, smell.
Even Mantra are classified into Guṇa.
This needs to be considered when using Mantra for the individual.
Meditation can be related to the Guṇa.
The object of our inquiry must be related or,
in accordance with what we want to produce.”
– TKV Desikachar on Sāṃkhya and Yoga
“Different people explain the cause of disease differently.
In the Yoga Sūtra disease is Vikṣepā, a mind which is unstable.
Mind loses its presence of mind before an object.”
– TKV Desikachar France 1983
“When an object is invisible,
it is not invisible because it is not there,
but because something hides it.
What you seek may be next door,
but you won’t find it precisely because it is next door.”
– TKV Desikachar Madras 1988
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