viparyayaDevanāgarī: विपर्यय Translation: wrong perception, misapprehension, error, mistake; reversed, inverted, perverse, contrary to Opposite words:pramāṇa, pratyakṣa Related concepts:avidyā, vṛtti
Appears inYoga Sūtra: Sāṃkhya Kārikā:
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“Even when our understanding is consistent with our perception or repeated experience,
it does not necessarily indicate a fact.
if we assume that a person is a woman simply because that person is dressed in a woman’s clothes,
this is called Viparyaya or mental activity that is based on something other than fact.
Viparyaya, then, is comprehension based on a perceived characteristic in the observer,
which leads to false assumptions.”
– T Krishnamacharya’s commentary to
Yoga Sūtra Chapter One verse 8
“These problems in our observation are related to the mixing of:
- Vikalpa: Imagination is already there operating when we begin to observe. All the more that we are better and better informed about what we should see, etc.
- Smṛti: Memory is, unfortunately, never factual.
Finally, we should never forget that all conclusions are wrong, because things change. Hence the importance of private lessons, which allow for more flexibility.”
– TKV Desikachar 1981
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