Sāṃkhya Kārikā verse 5

prati-viṣaya-adhyavasāyaḥ dṛṣṭaṃ tri-vidham-anumānam-ākhyātam | tat-liṅga-liṅgi-pūrvakam-āpta-śrutiḥ āpta-vacanaṃ tu ||

prati - with regard to; towards, in the direction of; back, in return, again; in opposition to, against, counteviṣaya - an object of sense; anything perceptible by the senses; any object of affection or concern or attentionadhyavasāya - mental effort, apprehension; determination to begin an activity with a view to get the fruitdṛṣṭa - seen, looked at, beheld, perceived, viewed, observed, noticed; visible, apparent, observable; considered, regarded; treated of; appearing, manifested; occurring, found; experienced, suffered, endured; seen in the mind, devised, imagined, learned,trividha - three foldanumāna - inference; the act of inferring or drawing a conclusionākhyāta - said, told, declared, made knowntat - that, thisliṅga - manifest; sign; genderpūrva - eastward, to the east of; in front, before; former, prior, preceding, previous to, earlier thanāpta - a credible or authoritative personśruti - hearing , listening; the ear, organ or power of hearing; that which is heard or perceived with the ear; sacred eternal sounds or words as heard by sages, differing from smṛti or what is only remembered and handed down in writing by authorsvacana - the act of speaking , utterance; statement, declarationtu - moreover; but

Commentaries and Reflections

Commentary by Paul Harvey:

Direct observation involves selective
ascertainment through the senses.
Inference is of three kinds:
– The past shaping the future
– Projecting the whole from the part
– Forming a comparison from a similar.
Authentic authority is trusted words and teachings.”